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Quando os estúdios de Hollywood se casaram com estrelas gays para manter sua sexualidade em segredo

Quando os estúdios de Hollywood se casaram com estrelas gays para manter sua sexualidade em segredo


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Durante a Idade de Ouro de Hollywood na década de 1920, atores e atrizes alcançaram a fama - mas apenas se adaptassem suas imagens às demandas dos grandes estúdios. Para atores LGBT, isso geralmente significava se casar com uma pessoa do sexo oposto.

O início do século 20 representou uma época única para as pessoas LGBT no país. Ao longo dos loucos anos 20, os homens vestidos de mulheres e as inconformidades de gênero e queerness não eram tão tabus nas grandes cidades como seriam anos depois.

A estranheza podia ser apreciada no palco, mas na vida cotidiana de grandes estrelas costumava ser escondida em uniões fictícias conhecidas como "casamentos lavanda", de acordo com Stephen Tropiano, professor de Screen Studies no Ithaca College e autor de O armário do horário nobre: ​​uma história de gays e lésbicas na TV.

Esses casamentos foram arranjados por estúdios de Hollywood entre uma ou mais pessoas gays, lésbicas ou bissexuais para esconder sua orientação sexual do público. Eles datam do início do século 20 e continuaram com o movimento de libertação gay dos anos 1960.

Os casamentos lilases resolviam em parte as “cláusulas morais” emitidas pelos grandes estúdios da época. As cláusulas, introduzidas pela primeira vez pela Universal Film Company, permitiam que a empresa suspendesse os salários dos atores "se eles perdessem o respeito do público". O tipo de comportamento considerado inaceitável variava amplamente, desde a atividade criminosa até a associação com qualquer conduta considerada indecente ou surpreendente para a comunidade. As cláusulas existem até hoje.

“Temos que lembrar que muitas dessas decisões que estavam sendo tomadas eram decisões econômicas”, diz Tropiano. “Era sobre uma pessoa segurando sua carreira.”

Um dos primeiros casamentos de lavanda especulado foi a união de 1919 entre o ator de cinema mudo e símbolo sexual precoce Rudolph Valentino e a atriz Jean Acker, que se dizia ser lésbica. Na noite de núpcias do casal, Acker aparentemente se arrependeu rapidamente do casamento e trancou seu novo marido fora do quarto de hotel, de acordo com o O jornal New York Times. Logo depois, eles se divorciaram.

Valentino também se casou com a figurinista Natacha Rambova em 1923, numa época em que sua carreira começava a decolar e os papéis que desempenhava eram vistos como menos tipicamente masculinos, como no filme “Monsieur Beaucaire” de 1924. Seu casamento com Rambova acabou. em 1925, o que deixou alguns especulando que os casamentos do “pó de arroz rosa” (apelido que Valentino adquiriu depois de desempenhar papéis afeminados na tela) eram encobrimentos para manter intacta a reputação do símbolo sexual.

Identificar quantos casais de Hollywood se casaram para encobrir sua sexualidade é, obviamente, problemático, uma vez que se baseia principalmente em especulação.

“Acho que a coisa mais difícil para um historiador é peneirar o que é o boato e o que é realmente factual”, diz Tropiano.

Uma fonte comumente citada para especulação é o livro de memórias de Scotty Bowers, Serviço completo: Minhas aventuras em Hollywood e a vida sexual secreta das estrelas. O relato de Bowers detalha encontros sexuais, gays e heterossexuais, que ele afirma ter organizado e participado, começando em 1946.

Bowers escreveu que esteve sexualmente envolvido com o ator principal Cary Grant e seu colega de quarto, Randolph Scott, por mais de uma década. Na época, Grant estava percorrendo cinco casamentos com mulheres. A filha de Grant, Jennifer Grant, contestou as acusações, por meio de sua porta-voz, dizendo em 2012 que seu pai era "muito heterossexual", de acordo com O jornal New York Times.

Grant morreu em 1986, e muitos dos sujeitos cujas vidas Bowers descreve também morreram. Alguns questionaram se os relatos de Bowers na autobiografia e o documentário de 2017 correspondente Scotty e a história secreta de Hollywood, são precisos. Mas o autoproclamado “consertador” inclui detalhes e fotografias que ele argumenta que corroboram suas afirmações.

Entre os casamentos lavanda mais especulados estava entre o famoso ator Rock Hudson e sua secretária Phyllis Gates. Eles se casaram em 1955 e se separaram dois anos depois, depois que rumores sobre sua homossexualidade e infidelidade começaram a se acumular.

Ondas de rumores e especulações sobre os assuntos de Hudson se espalharam tanto que até ajudaram a fomentar o crescimento do jornalismo de tablóides de celebridades. A publicação Confidencial tornou-se popular em meados da década de 1950, apresentando notícias obscenas de celebridades. O tablóide divulgou figuras populares como Hudson antes mesmo de a divulgação ser uma coisa. Apesar da cobertura, Hudson nunca falou sobre sua orientação sexual publicamente antes de morrer de AIDS em 1985.

Alguns atores gays escolheram viver abertamente, apesar do risco. Na década de 1930, o ator William Haines se recusou a esconder seu relacionamento com seu parceiro. Haines foi contratado pela MGM nas décadas de 1920 e 1930, enquanto vivia com um ex-marinheiro chamado Jimmy Shields.

Mesmo com o conhecimento comum - mas não dito - de que os dois homens estavam romanticamente envolvidos, a popularidade de Haines não diminuiu até anos depois. Foi quando ele recebeu um ultimato, ou se casaria com uma mulher ou seria dispensado pela MGM, de acordo com Tropiano.

“[Haines] teve que fazer uma escolha entre se livrar de seu parceiro e ter uma carreira”, diz Tropiano. "E ele realmente escolheu o parceiro masculino."

Haines então deixou a tela de prata para criar uma empresa de design de interiores bem-sucedida com seu parceiro. Ele agora é frequentemente considerado uma das primeiras estrelas abertamente gays de Hollywood.

Os casamentos lilases tornaram-se menos prevalentes nas décadas de 1960 e 1970, à medida que o movimento pelos direitos dos homossexuais ganhou ímpeto após os motins de Stonewall de 1969.

Embora a representação no cinema e na televisão ainda fosse escassa, a vida real das estrelas na tela - heterossexuais, gays ou bissexuais - não era ditada pelos estúdios tanto quanto no passado.


A história secreta de Hollywood gay finalmente chega ao seu lugar

Matt Tyrnauer estava na casa de Gore Vidal em Hollywood Hills alguns anos antes de sua morte quando Vidal de repente declarou que queria ver alguém chamado Scotty.

“Eu disse a ele:‘ Quem é Scotty? ’” Tyrnauer me disse. “E ele disse:‘ Scotty era meu cafetão ’.”

Tyrnauer, um escritor de longa data da Vanity Fair que dirigiu vários filmes, disse que pediu a Vidal que elaborasse. Vidal começou a descrever um posto de gasolina em Hollywood Boulevard quando Tyrnauer percebeu que já tinha ouvido falar de Scotty antes - e sobre o posto de gasolina.

“Espere um minuto, este é a posto de gasolina que era um bordel? ” ele se lembra de perguntar a Vidal.

Scotty, cujo nome completo é Scotty Bowers, um ex-fuzileiro naval, ganhou o título de “Pimp to the Stars” nos anos após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, quando comandou uma operação sexual em um trailer atrás do posto de gasolina. O trailer veio servir como uma fuga para membros gays e bissexuais de Hollywood durante um período especialmente homofóbico em sua indústria.

“Se você fosse gay ou bissexual e uma pessoa proeminente em Hollywood no período após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, você estava proibido de viver uma vida autêntica em público ou, em muitos casos, em privado, porque havia tantos perigos”, Tyrnauer disse.

Ao longo de sua carreira, o excêntrico Bowers, agora com 95 anos, prestou serviços para gente como Cary Grant, Cole Porter e Katharine Hepburn, diz ele, acumulando uma reputação secreta em Hollywood e como um procurador sem preconceitos e sex-positivo. Ele desenvolveu amizade com gigantes culturais como o pesquisador de sexo Alfred Kinsey e Vidal, que eventualmente apresentou Bowers a Tyrnauer.

O resultado dessa reunião é “Scotty e a História Secreta de Hollywood”, um documentário descaradamente lascivo que chegou aos cinemas este mês. Na história de vida de Bowers, Tyrnauer encontrou uma maneira de exaltar uma versão menos direta e sub rosa da era de ouro de Hollywood. Embora a maioria dos supostos clientes de Bower estejam mortos agora e, portanto, incapazes de verificar ou negar suas contas, Tyrnauer acredita que os contos alternativos de Bowers são valiosos, o que se opõe à narrativa puritana e heterossexual de LA de meados do século.

Na semana passada, conversei com Tyrnauer sobre fazer o filme, conhecer Bowers e o lado excitante de Hollywood que permaneceu fechado por tanto tempo. Essa conversa, reproduzida abaixo, foi editada e condensada para maior clareza.

Este filme se concentra em uma época em Hollywood em que era mais aceitável ser adúltero do que gay, havia cláusulas morais [isso tornava ser gay uma ofensa passível de ser demitida] e esquadrões de vice e revistas denunciando pessoas. Então entra esse cara, Scotty Bowers. Alguém no filme diz que eles estavam apenas esperando que alguém como ele aparecesse. Então, quem era Bowers? E que serviço, exatamente, ele estava prestando a essas pessoas?

Scotty Bowers era um fuzileiro naval muito bonito que saiu do Pacífico Sul na Segunda Guerra Mundial, acabou em Los Angeles com, eu acho, 22 anos e rapidamente encontrou dois tipos de trabalho.

Um era frentista de um posto de gasolina no posto Richfield Oil, no cruzamento da Hollywood Boulevard com a Van Ness. O outro tipo de trabalho que Scotty fez foi fornecer serviços sexuais para membros do elenco de elite de Hollywood.

Ele às vezes é chamado de "cafetão das estrelas", embora eu ache que "cafetão" é um termo áspero que leva a pensamentos automaticamente pejorativos. Scotty realmente é uma figura muito mais positiva, que permitiu que as estrelas - que na verdade foram vítimas de restrições impostas pelos estúdios por meio de cláusulas morais - levassem uma vida autêntica.

Os próprios estúdios eram autopoliciados e, por meio das cláusulas morais, controlavam com firmeza as estrelas de cinema. Em seguida, havia o esquadrão de vice dirigido pelo Departamento de Polícia de Los Angeles, que era equivalente a uma Gestapo sexual, perseguindo pessoas que tinham qualquer coisa além de relacionamentos heteronormativos e muitas vezes conspirando com a imprensa para incriminar, extorquir e humilhar pessoas que estavam apenas tentando viver vidas autênticas.

O que atraiu você na história de Bowers?

Eu vi uma oportunidade de fazer um filme sobre a história alternativa de Hollywood ou, na verdade, mostrar a história alternativa de Hollywood através de um único protagonista que ainda está vivo aos 95 anos. O fato de ele ser uma espécie de prefeito do mundo sexual secreto desta cidade tão significativa o torna um protagonista extremamente importante para um filme que quer preencher as lacunas e mostrar, antes que seja tarde, um quadro completo de exatamente o que estava acontecendo no período áureo do sistema de estúdio.

Você o segue depois que ele escreve este livro sobre a vida dele. Ele diz que a certa altura escreveu o livro para mostrar que algumas dessas pessoas em Hollywood são apenas pessoas - pessoas desenvolvidas e totalmente formadas, como qualquer outra pessoa. Você fez este filme por um motivo semelhante?

Eu vi o filme desde o início como um filme político. Hollywood e Los Angeles não são apenas grandes cidades ou lugares famosos. Começando há 100 anos, o sistema de estúdio criou o mito americano, e esse mito então se espalhou por todo o mundo. E a certa altura, a narrativa que Hollywood insistia em produzir era aquela que retratava os estilos de vida heterossexuais e brancos como a única opção moral para viver uma vida decente. Isso foi muito proposital e, no final, bastante corrupto.

O fato de haver mais do que olhos na cidade-empresa que produziu esses mitos duradouros é, penso eu, importante.

O livro de Bowers dá nomes e ele entra em detalhes em seu filme sobre as preferências sexuais particulares de algumas dessas celebridades. Isso me fez pensar muito sobre a política de expor os mortos. É abordado um pouco em seu filme. Há um clipe de mulheres no "The View" discutindo isso, e algumas pessoas perguntam a ele sobre isso em algumas de suas sessões de autógrafos. Foi algo que você lutou?

Acho que Scotty coloca melhor no filme quando alguém o confronta e diz - estou parafraseando - “Você não se sentiu culpado por escrever um livro que conta tudo? E se alguém dos netos do seu livro descobrir? ” Scotty responde, com bastante sensatez: "O que há de errado em ser gay?"

Estas são figuras públicas, e algumas delas são figuras públicas extremamente importantes. Eles ocupam um lugar único na velha psique por causa do poder de Hollywood. Se vamos ter muitas biografias de Cary Grant, ter todas elas sendo relatos diretos de quem foi Cary Grant não é apenas desonesto, mas talvez prejudicial. Eu faria a seguinte pergunta: Não é relevante saber que Michelangelo era gay? Se você está fazendo uma biografia de Michelangelo que o retrata como um homem heterossexual, acho que isso está prestando um péssimo serviço ao leitor, para dizer o mínimo. Então, por que não quereríamos saber todo o espectro da vida privada de figuras históricas quando estamos estudando tão granularmente essas pessoas quase 100 anos após o auge de sua fama?

Bowers também parece ter dedicado muito tempo e reflexão a isso. Ele disse que pode ter sido um segredo para pessoas de fora de Hollywood. Mas dentro de seus círculos sociais, muitas pessoas sabiam que essas pessoas não eram totalmente heterossexuais, mesmo que não fossem publicamente declaradas.

Ele também diz muito sabiamente: "Eu queria mostrar às pessoas que as pessoas ainda são pessoas", e essa é a sua maneira de mostrar o que quero dizer. Por que colocar uma estrela de cinema como Cary Grant ou Katharine Hepburn em algum pedestal higienizado e insistir em adorar uma imagem artificial que foi polida por uma máquina de publicidade? Se você se preocupa tanto em saber os detalhes da vida de Katharine Hepburn e Cary Grant e Tyrone Power e todas as outras grandes figuras do período, por que não conhecer o espectro completo? Por que insistir em continuar perpetrando uma versão direta de suas biografias? Simplesmente não faz sentido para mim e acho que é realmente uma forma de homofobia.

A filmagem dentro de suas casas é muito interessante. Torna-se óbvio que Bowers é uma espécie de colecionador. O que você tirou disso?

Bem, ele é um colecionador, para dizer o mínimo, e eu sou uma aberração legal, então filmar no mundo de um colecionador por dois anos foi interessante para mim. Ele tinha seus elementos perturbadores - porque eu acho o entesouramento perturbador, assim como muitas pessoas - mas também tinha suas vantagens como cineasta porque ele não jogava nada fora. Conseguimos escavar em algumas de suas unidades de armazenamento algumas provas muito convincentes de sua existência como a senhora do posto de gasolina, incluindo dezenas de fotos do período que ele não via desde o momento em que foram tiradas.

Quanto ao que significa o entesouramento de Scotty, apresento-o sem verniz no filme. Deixo para a interpretação dos espectadores e da comunidade psiquiátrica dizer exatamente o que isso simboliza. Se eu tivesse que adivinhar, e esse é um palpite irrestrito, acho que aponta para muitas perdas em sua vida pessoal, porque ele teve isso. Começando com a Segunda Guerra Mundial e a morte de seu irmão, também um fuzileiro naval, até a morte de sua filha em um aborto mal sucedido no final dos anos 60, houve muitos golpes dolorosos.

Parece que, além das tragédias pessoais que ele enfrentou, seu tempo na guerra realmente o afetou pelo resto de sua vida.

Ele é realmente o garoto totalmente americano do século 20. Ele é muito mais sincero do que a maioria deles, então ele está contando a você as partes que muitos deixaram de fora.

Kinsey e Bowers eram amigos, certo? Esse, para mim, foi um dos personagens mais interessantes para entrar no filme. Você sabe alguma coisa sobre essa amizade e o que atraiu Kinsey para Bowers?

Sim eu quero. Liguei para o Instituto Kinsey na [Universidade de Indiana em] Bloomington e falei com um dos pesquisadores de lá, que disse que conhecia Scotty Bowers porque havia um arquivo muito grande sobre Scotty no arquivo pessoal do Dr. Kinsey, incluindo correspondência , cartões postais e cartas escritas de Scotty para o Dr. Kinsey. Scotty foi uma importante fonte e recurso para Kinsey - fonte porque ele foi entrevistado por Kinsey para o conjunto de dados de seu livro inovador [Comportamento sexual no homem humano], que realmente mudou toda a equação do sexo e da sexualidade em todo o mundo quando foi publicado.

Kinsey procurou Scotty como sujeito porque ele tentou encontrar certos unicórnios sexuais que pudessem mostrar-lhe espectros de sexualidade que nunca foram discutidos e inacessíveis à pesquisa médica até aquele ponto. Scotty era uma dessas pessoas, segundo ele. Kinsey queria saber sobre as atividades de Scotty, e Scotty sendo um livro aberto - pelo menos naquele período para um médico que estava disposto a trabalhar para ele confidencialmente - contou-lhe tudo, então o ajudou com essa pesquisa, apresentando-o aos mundos que Kinsey faria normalmente não tem acesso, que eram os mundos ocultos da mesma sexualidade em Los Angeles na época.

Isso leva a um dos pontos principais do filme, que é que o mundo gay em Hollywood tinha que ser um segredo porque as consequências de ser aberto eram terríveis demais. Você seria demitido se trabalhasse para um estúdio, ou poderia ser preso pelo esquadrão de vice do Departamento de Polícia de Los Angeles, ou poderia ser simplesmente humilhado ou condenado ao ostracismo. Não foi uma época fácil para ser gay, especialmente em uma cidade que tinha tantos holofotes sobre sua população e seu ambiente. Então Scotty apresentou Kinsey a Rock Hudson e muitas outras pessoas na cidade que estavam ansiosas para conhecer a pessoa que lhes mostrou, talvez pela primeira vez, que eles não eram degenerados, aberrações ou criminosos sexuais, mas sim seres humanos normais.

Alguém no filme diz que achava que Bowers era quase uma lenda urbana por um tempo, mas você obviamente teve um acesso significativo a ele. Ele estava aberto ao documentário desde o início? Como era seu relacionamento com ele?

Quem disse isso foi William Mann, um historiador muito estimado e biógrafo de Hollywood. Ele estava dizendo que fontes disseram a ele por anos que você tem que falar com Scotty Bowers para confirmar muitas informações sobre as sexualidades desconhecidas ou anteriormente não contadas de figuras-chave na colônia de filmes, e ele brinca: “Comecei a pensar que Scotty era uma lenda urbana porque ouvi muito sobre ele, mas nunca consegui descobrir como encontrá-lo. ”

Então descobri como encontrá-lo por meio de Gore Vidal, que me apresentou a ele. Eu tinha ouvido falar dele por anos de fontes em Hollywood e assuntos de artigos sobre os quais eu havia escrito. Quem me contou sobre Scotty foi, na verdade, Merv Griffin, que mencionou o posto de gasolina. Ele não mencionou Scotty, mas disse que havia um posto de gasolina em Hollywood Boulevard onde você costumava se meter em encrenca, que era seu eufemismo para atividades do mesmo sexo, eu suponho.

Na época, eu era um escritor em tempo integral, editor geral da revista Vanity Fair e comecei a fazer anotações sobre esse misterioso posto de gasolina que parecia ser uma espécie de história não contada significativa sobre o mundo secreto da Hollywood gay . Um dia, eu estava sentado com Gore Vidal em sua sala de estar em Hollywood Hills, e ele deixou escapar do nada: “Eu quero ver Scotty”. Eu disse a ele: "Quem é Scotty?" E ele disse: "Scotty era meu cafetão", e eu: "Bem, conte-me mais."

Ele disse: “Tínhamos um posto de gasolina em Hollywood Boulevard”, e então imediatamente me levantei da cadeira e disse: “Espere um minuto, este é a posto de gasolina que era um bordel? ” E ele disse: “Sim, eu o conheci lá em 1948”, o que Scotty confirmou para mim. Ele havia se reconectado com Scotty nos últimos cinco anos de sua vida. Da próxima vez que fui à casa de Gore, Scotty estava lá. Foi assim que o conheci e por causa do endosso de Vidal, eu realmente tive a confiança de Scotty desde o início.

É incrível o que um endosso de Gore Vidal fará por você, sabe?

Bem, nessa área foi o máximo. Vou lhe dar uma linha que não dei a ninguém: Amigos de Gore especularam para mim quando o livro de Scotty foi publicado que este era o "Foda-se" definitivo de Gore para Hollywood.

Mesmo? Por que você acha que foi?

Porque Vidal era um homem gay muito corajoso e, eu acho, conhecia todos os segredos de Hollywood - ou a maioria deles. Ele achou que era ridículo que eles fossem tão protegidos e muito hipócritas, e acho que ele sabia a quem recorrer para estourar a tampa. Ele realmente ajudou Scotty a publicar o livro apenas alguns anos antes da morte [de Vidal].

Este filme me fez pensar sobre a política de ser gay em Hollywood hoje. Em comparação, onde você acha que Hollywood está em 2018?

Como em qualquer cidade grande, as coisas estão muito melhores. Houve avanços extraordinários nas habilidades ou nas pessoas com identidades sexuais diferentes da hetero para prosperar e encontrar aceitação. Mas ainda há um longo caminho a percorrer. No mundo do cinema em particular, há um enigma, que é pensado que o sucesso de muitos filmes depende das fantasias sexuais do espectador, e presume-se que frequentemente essas fantasias são heterossexuais, e suponho que o medo é que, O ator principal ou a protagonista são conhecidos pelo espectador por estarem interessados ​​no mesmo sexo em sua vida fora das telas, o cenário na tela pode não funcionar para eles.

Estou supondo que é por isso que não há muitos homens e mulheres líderes de fora, mas isso é apenas um palpite da minha parte, e tenho certeza que conforme a cultura progride e a adoção de identidades sexuais mais livres e fluidez sexual continua entre gerações mais jovens e mais sábias que esses indivíduos tomarão essas decisões um dia e não serão tão rígidos em suas crenças tribais sobre identidades sexuais pré-fabricadas.


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Suspeitava-se que algumas das estrelas mais brilhantes da Idade de Ouro de Hollywood & # 039s tiveram casamentos "escravos" - por causa de suas carreiras. Durante a Idade de Ouro de Hollywood na década de 1920, atores e atrizes alcançaram a fama - mas apenas se adaptassem suas imagens às demandas dos grandes estúdios. Para atores LGBT, isso geralmente significava se casar com uma pessoa do sexo oposto. O início do século 20 representou uma época única para as pessoas LGBT no país. Ao longo dos loucos anos 20, os homens vestidos de mulheres e as inconformidades de gênero e queerness não eram tão tabu nas grandes cidades quanto seriam anos depois.

A estranheza podia ser apreciada no palco, mas na vida cotidiana de grandes estrelas costumava ser escondida em uniões falsas conhecidas como "casamentos de escravos", de acordo com Stephen Tropiano, professor de Screen Studies no Ithaca College e autor de The Prime Time Closet: A História de Gays e Lésbicas na TV. Esses casamentos foram arranjados por estúdios de Hollywood entre uma ou mais pessoas gays, lésbicas ou bissexuais para esconder sua orientação sexual do público. Eles datam do início do século 20 e continuaram com o movimento de libertação gay dos anos 1960.

Os casamentos lilases resolviam em parte as “cláusulas morais” emitidas pelos grandes estúdios da época. As cláusulas, introduzidas pela primeira vez pela Universal Film Company, permitiam à empresa interromper os salários dos atores & # 039 & quot se eles perdessem o respeito do público. ” O tipo de comportamento considerado inaceitável variava amplamente, desde atividade criminosa até associação com qualquer conduta considerada indecente ou surpreendente para a comunidade. As cláusulas existem até hoje. “Temos que lembrar que muitas dessas decisões que estavam sendo tomadas eram decisões econômicas”, diz Tropiano. “Era sobre uma pessoa segurando sua carreira.”

Um dos primeiros casamentos de lavanda especulado foi a união de 1919 entre o ator de cinema mudo e símbolo sexual precoce Rudolph Valentino e a atriz Jean Acker, que se dizia ser lésbica. Na noite de núpcias do casal, Acker aparentemente se arrependeu rapidamente do casamento e trancou seu novo marido fora do quarto de hotel, de acordo com um artigo do The New York Times de 8 de novembro de 1991. Logo depois, eles se divorciaram. Valentino também se casou com a figurinista Natacha Rambova em 1923, numa época em que sua carreira começava a decolar e os papéis que desempenhava eram vistos como menos tipicamente masculinos, como no filme “Monsieur Beaucaire” de 1924. Seu casamento com Rambova acabou. em 1925, o que deixou alguns especulando que os casamentos do “pó de arroz rosa” (apelido que Valentino adquiriu depois de desempenhar papéis afeminados na tela) eram encobrimentos para manter intacta a reputação do símbolo sexual.

Identificar quantos casais de Hollywood se casaram para esconder sua sexualidade é, claro, problemático, uma vez que se baseia principalmente na especulação. Uma fonte comumente citada para especulação é o livro de memórias de Scotty Bowers, Full Service: My Adventures in Hollywood and the Secret Sex Lives of the Stars. O relato de Bowers detalha encontros sexuais, gays e heterossexuais, que ele afirma ter arranjado e participado, começando em 1946. Bowers escreveu que esteve sexualmente envolvido com o ator principal Cary Grant e seu colega de quarto, Randolph Scott, por mais de um década. Na época, Grant estava percorrendo cinco casamentos com mulheres. A filha de Grant, Jennifer Grant, contestou as acusações, por meio de sua porta-voz, dizendo em 2012 que seu pai era "muito heterossexual", de acordo com o The New York Times.

Cary Grant morreu em 1986, e muitos dos sujeitos cujas vidas Bowers descreve também faleceram. Alguns questionaram se os relatos de Bowers & # 039 na autobiografia e o documentário de 2017 correspondente, Scotty e a História Secreta de Hollywood, são precisos. Mas o autoproclamado “consertador” inclui detalhes e fotografias que ele argumenta que corroboram suas afirmações.

Entre os casamentos lavanda mais especulados estava entre o famoso ator Rock Hudson e sua secretária Phyllis Gates. Eles se casaram em 1955 e se separaram dois anos depois, depois que rumores sobre sua homossexualidade e infidelidade começaram a se acumular. Ondas de rumores e especulações sobre os assuntos de Hudson se espalharam tanto que até ajudaram a fomentar o crescimento do jornalismo de tablóides de celebridades. o
a publicação Confidential tornou-se popular em meados da década de 1950 por apresentar notícias obscenas sobre celebridades. O tablóide divulgou figuras populares como Hudson antes mesmo que a divulgação fosse uma coisa. Apesar da cobertura, Hudson nunca falou sobre sua orientação sexual publicamente antes de morrer de AIDS em 1985.

Alguns atores gays escolheram viver abertamente, apesar do risco. Na década de 1930, o ator William Haines se recusou a esconder seu relacionamento com seu parceiro. Haines foi contratado pela MGM nas décadas de 1920 e 1930, enquanto vivia com um ex-marinheiro chamado Jimmy Shields. Mesmo com o conhecimento comum - mas não dito - de que os dois homens estavam romanticamente envolvidos, a popularidade de Haines não diminuiu até anos depois. Foi quando ele recebeu um ultimato, ou se casaria com uma mulher ou seria dispensado pela MGM, de acordo com Tropiano. “Haines teve que fazer uma escolha entre se livrar de seu parceiro e seguir uma carreira”, diz Tropiano. "E ele realmente escolheu seu parceiro masculino." Haines então deixou a tela de prata para trás para criar uma empresa de design de interiores bem-sucedida com seu parceiro. Ele agora é frequentemente considerado uma das primeiras estrelas abertamente gays de Hollywood.

Os casamentos lilases tornaram-se menos prevalentes nas décadas de 1960 e 1970, à medida que o movimento pelos direitos dos homossexuais ganhou impulso após os distúrbios de Stonewall em 1969. Embora a representação no cinema e na televisão ainda fosse escassa, a vida real das estrelas na tela - heterossexuais, gays ou bissexuais - não eram ditados pelos estúdios tanto quanto eram no passado.


Antigas estrelas de Hollywood que eram secretamente homossexuais

Freqüentemente pensamos em Hollywood como uma aceitação de homens e mulheres homossexuais. Afinal, temos Alan Cumming, Neil Patrick Harris, Jodie Foster e Ellen DeGeneres que estão orgulhosos. Hollywood também nos deu ótimos filmes sobre relacionamento entre pessoas do mesmo sexo e direitos gays, como Brokeback Mountain para Leite.

Mas houve uma época mais sombria em Hollywood, quando as estrelas homossexuais tinham que manter sua sexualidade o mais privada possível. A sociedade não era tão tolerante e Hollywood não tinha interesse, na época, em desafiar as normas da sociedade.

Muitos estúdios de cinema tinham “cláusulas morais” em seus contratos. Isso ameaçaria a carreira de uma estrela se descobrisse que eles têm relações com o mesmo sexo.

Os estúdios ficaram felizes em ajudar o vice-esquadrão do LAPD a caçar essas estrelas. Por sua vez, o LAPD ficou feliz em ajudar os paparazzi a expor essas estrelas e arruinar suas carreiras da noite para o dia.

Um dos grandes ícones do início de Hollywood foi James Dean. Ele conquistou o coração de muitas mulheres americanas com sua interpretação de Jim Stark em Rebelde sem causa. Mas não eram apenas as mulheres que gostavam do ator. Há rumores de que o próprio James Dean se interessava por homens.

Uma anedota popular empurrada por Dean foi que ele evitou ser convocado para a Guerra da Coréia por "beijar o médico". Durante sua curta vida, houve rumores de que Dean era gay. Quando solicitado a discutir o assunto, ele teria dito: “Não, eu não sou homossexual, mas também não estou passando pela vida com uma mão amarrada nas costas.”

Acreditava-se que Dean buscava relacionamentos com a lenda de Hollywood Marlon Brando, bem como com o executivo de publicidade Rogers Brackett.

Décadas após sua morte, James Dean continua sendo um dos maiores símbolos sexuais que Hollywood já produziu. Ele continua sendo um galã para muitas mulheres ... assim como para muitos homens! Ele é considerado um ícone gay e talvez se os tempos fossem diferentes, ele teria sido mais aberto sobre seus sentimentos pelos homens.

Mas James Dean não era o único símbolo sexual conhecido por buscar relacionamentos entre pessoas do mesmo sexo. Muitos homens devem ter ficado boquiabertos com a imagem do vestido de Marilyn Monroe voando em O Pecado Mora Ao Lado. Mas deve ter havido muitas mulheres que fizeram o mesmo.

Em uma biografia do ícone em 2012, a autora Lois Banner afirmou que Marilyn Monroe desejava mulheres e tinha casos com elas. Acredita-se que ela tenha tido casos com Elizabeth Taylor, Joan Crawford, Marlene Dietrich e Barbara Stanwyck.

A atriz Judy Garland alegou que Marilyn Monroe uma vez a perseguiu em uma festa. Também houve rumores de que seu casamento com o jogador de beisebol Joe DiMaggio acabou porque ela preferia mulheres.

Você sabia que esses dois grandes símbolos sexuais provavelmente eram secretamente homossexuais? Antes de contarmos ainda mais sobre as velhas estrelas de Hollywood que eram secretamente homossexuais, por favor, curta este vídeo e se inscreva em nosso canal para mais histórias únicas e fascinantes. Agora, de volta ao vídeo ...

Não foram apenas os símbolos sexuais mais jovens que perseguiram relacionamentos do mesmo sexo. Um dos casais lendários de Hollywood foi o ator Spencer Tracy e a atriz Katharine Hepburn.

Em outubro de 2016, Vanity Fair publicou um trecho da biografia de Katharine Hepburn de William J. Mann. Neste trecho, foi alegado que Spencer Tracy usaria os serviços de Scotty Bowers.

Bowers era conhecido como o cafetão por servir aos homossexuais enrustidos de Hollywood. Ele também alegou ter tido um caso com Spencer Tracy.

Então, como o suposto homossexual Spencer Tracy teve um relacionamento com a atriz Katharine Hepburn? Acredita-se que o casal foi criado por estúdios de Hollywood que queriam criar a imagem de um grande casal.

Scotty Bowers also knew Katharine Hepburn well and claimed that she was attracted to women. He claimed to have introduced the actress to many women over the years. One woman was named ‘Barbara’ and allegedly the two of them met for several years. Upon Katharine Hepburn’s death, Barbara allegedly received $100,000 check from the actress’s estate.

Let’s return now to one of the greatest leading men in Hollywood history. We know that James Dean was rumored to have pursued an affair with Marlon Brando. But what did Brando himself think about homosexuality?

We know about Brando’s brute sexuality on display in films ranging from A Streetcar Named Desire para Last Tango In Paris. It’s films like these which made women fawn over him. But he had no problem with having affairs with men as well.

In his 1976 autobiography, the actor claimed that homosexuality had become so “in fashion” that it was no longer news. He further stated that he had many ‘homosexual experiences’ and that he wasn’t ashamed to admit it and that he couldn’t care less about what others thought of him.

In fact, there are rumors that Marlon Brando enjoyed having affairs with many of Hollywood’s top stars throughout the ages. He was always known to be outspoken with his opinions and his views.

Marlon Brando showed us that he was very ahead of his time by boldly stating that he didn’t have any opposition to homosexuality. Perhaps in years to come he’ll be remembered as a champion for gay rights when it wasn’t so fashionable.

We mentioned that one of Marilyn Monroe’s flings was with the actress Barbara Stanwyck. In fact, it seems that there are numerous biographers, journalists, and cinephiles alike who have speculated about her sexuality.

Her relationships with Robert Taylor and Frank Fay are believed to have been just “for show,” much like the relationship between Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn. Unlike Marlon Brando, Barbara Stanwyck would fiercely guard her private life and her sexuality.

In fact, she would throw journalists and writers out of her house when she would get pushed about her sexuality. In her later years, she would accuse one journalist of senior abuse for asking about her sexuality.

One of the most frightening screen performances that classic Hollywood has given us was Norman Bates in Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho. The enigmatic role was played by actor Anthony Perkins, who himself was an enigma.

While he was married and had two children, it was rumored that he would pursue relationships with men on the side. Once again, Scotty Bowers comes into the picture, as he claimed that he would introduce the actor to many “handsome young men.”

It’s also rumored that the actor received flack and was often mocked for his alleged homosexuality. If such is the case, it’s only natural that he tried his best to keep his personal life as private as possible.

Another character actor who allegedly also had relations with men was Montgomery Clift. Some media outlets have done their best to depict the actor as a troubled soul who battled depression due to hiding a dark secret.

However, there’s another perspective that he was actually very comfortable with his affections for men. Many of Montgomery Clift’s roles involved him being a brooding and almost depressive character.

Yet, this was in stark contrast to his real-life personality. He was known to be very lighthearted and carefree when he was with his partners. He also refuted many of the restrictions that Hollywood studios put on actors. He refused to take roles that he didn’t feel suited him.

This put Montgomery Clift ahead of his time. Upon reflection, perhaps he was a pioneer in making Hollywood more accepting toward homosexual stars.

But we must remember that not everyone could be as bold or open as Marlon Brando or Montgomery Clift. One of the biggest crossover stars during the early days of Cinema was the Welsh actor and composer, Ivor Novello.

Until 1967, homosexual relations were illegal in the UK. As such, he had to keep his sexuality private in his native country. But traveling across the pond to Hollywood changed nothing, as the climate in the first half of the twentieth century was still hostile to homosexuality.

Ivor Novello never publicly revealed his sexuality. Nevertheless, among his social circles it seemed that his homosexuality was apparent. It’s also believed that prior to 1967, the British police would turn a blind eye to his liaisons with men.

In Hollywood, it seems as if he managed to escape the LAPD’s vice squad as well as the snapshots from the paparazzi.

One wonders that had he been born in a different era, he could be open about his feelings without worrying about keeping it quiet from others.

Today, things have changed tremendously in Hollywood. As we discussed in our introduction, this is one of the few industries that’s tolerant toward homosexuals. It’s now an industry where the biggest stars as well as newcomers can be open about their sexuality.

Many of the earliest supporters of same-sex marriage came from Hollywood. In recent years, many great Hollywood films have revolved around same-sex relationships.

As we now take it for granted, we must remember that this wasn’t always the case. We must remember how Ivor Novello kept his sexuality a big secret. We must remember how Barbara Stanwyck was bothered by intrusive journalists and authors.

We must also be grateful for actors such as James Dean, Marlon Brando, and Montgomery Clift who weren’t afraid to be open about homosexuality. It’s because of their frankness that Hollywood has made progress.

So what do you think about how Old Hollywood stars who were secretly homosexual were treated? Do you feel that progress came too late? Do you also think Hollywood should ignore a star’s private lives and values?

Let’s hear your thoughts in the comments.

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They said 'yes' to drugs . and child labor

Young actress Judy Garland was signed to a contract with MGM studio in 1935 when she was just 13 years old. The studio quickly put her to work, pairing her up with fellow child actor Mickey Rooney and forcing her to adhere to a grueling schedule of singing and dance rehearsals. De acordo com Linha do tempo, the young stars frequently worked as many as six days a week, often for 18 hour days. In order to keep energy levels high and Garland's weight down, she was supplied with a steady stream of amphetamines.

Before her death of a drug overdose at just 47 years old in 1969, Garland herself reflected on the manner in which the studio controlled her and her young co-star through drugs and nonstop work, saying, "They'd give us pills to keep us on our feet long after we were exhausted. Then they'd take us to the studio hospital and knock us out with sleeping pills — Mickey (Rooney) sprawled out on one bed and me on another. Then after four hours they'd wake us up and give us the pep pills again so we could work 72 hours in a row" (via The Daily Express).


Hollywood Fixer Opens His Little Black Book

STRAIGHT actors who wanted to pay for sex in the 1990s had Heidi Fleiss. Gay ones during the late 1940s and beyond apparently had Scotty Bowers.

His story has floated through moviedom’s clubby senior ranks for years: Back in a more golden age of Hollywood, a guy named Scotty, a former Marine, was said to have run a type of prostitution ring for gay and bisexual men in the film industry, including A-listers like Cary Grant, George Cukor and Rock Hudson, and even arranged sexual liaisons for actresses like Vivien Leigh and Katharine Hepburn.

“Old Hollywood people who have, shall we say, known him would tell me stories,” said Matt Tyrnauer, a writer for Vanity Fair and the director of the 2008 documentary “Valentino: The Last Emperor.” “But whenever I followed up on what would obviously be a great story, I was told, ‘Oh, he’ll never talk.’ ”

Mr. Bowers, 88, recalls his highly unorthodox life in a ribald memoir scheduled to be published by Grove Press on Feb. 14, “Full Service: My Adventures in Hollywood and the Secret Sex Lives of the Stars.” Written with Lionel Friedberg, an award-winning producer of documentaries, it is a lurid, no-detail-too-excruciating account of a sexual Zelig who (if you believe him) trawled an X-rated underworld for over three decades without getting caught.

Image

“I’ve kept silent all these years because I didn’t want to hurt any of these people,” Mr. Bowers said recently over lemonade on his patio in the Hollywood Hills, where he lives in a cluttered bungalow with his wife of 27 years, Lois. “And I never saw the fascination. So they liked sex how they liked it. Who cares?”

He paused for a moment to scratch his collie, Baby, behind the ears. “I don’t need the money,” he continued. “I finally said yes because I’m not getting any younger and all of my famous tricks are dead by now. The truth can’t hurt them anymore.”

Twenty-six years after Hudson’s death from AIDS and more than four decades after “Hollywood Babylon” was first published, it will come as a surprise to no one that the images the movie factories created for stars of the 1940s, ’50s and ’60s — when Mr. Bowers was most active — were just that: images. The people who fed the world strait-laced cinema like “The Philadelphia Story” and perfect-family television like “I Love Lucy” were often quite the opposite of prudish in private.

At the same time, a lot of what Mr. Bowers has to say is pretty shocking. He claims, for instance, to have set Hepburn up with “over 150 different women.” Other stories in the 286-page memoir involve Spencer Tracy, Cole Porter, the Duke and Duchess of Windsor and socialites like the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. “If you believe him, and I do, he’s like the Kinsey Reports live and in living color,” said Mr. Tyrnauer, who recently completed a deal to make a documentary about Mr. Bowers.

“Full Service” at the very least highlights how sharply the rules of engagement for reporting celebrity gossip have changed. The sexual shenanigans of movie stars were a currency for tabloids stretching back to Hollywood’s earliest days, but studios and, subsequently, squadrons of privately hired public relations experts could usually keep all but the most egregious behavior out of the news media. Secrets were kept.

A degree of that still goes on, of course, but it’s much harder to keep details as salacious as the ones Mr. Bowers outlines under wraps. Now all it takes is one pair of loose lips for TMZ to beam all manner of embarrassing information around the globe.

The people behind the memoir, including Mr. Bowers’s agent, David Kuhn, and Morgan Entrekin, the publisher of Grove/Atlantic, insist that “Full Service” is not a prurient tell-all, but instead provides a window into an erased, forgotten and denied past of Los Angeles. In his pitch to publishers, Mr. Kuhn positioned it as no less than a tale about “the complex and conflicted psychosexual history of America’s soul.”

A lot of big publishers didn’t agree, or at least were not willing to risk the bawdy stuff to get to any larger point. (Yes, the book was offered to Knopf.) Mr. Entrekin said he decided to publish “Full Service” partly because “there seemed to be nothing meanspirited about it at all.

“You don’t get the sense that this guy is trying to exploit these experiences,” he said.

The heirs and estates of some of the people mentioned in the book are bound to feel otherwise. Fans, too.

“He needs to brace himself for attacks,” said William J. Mann, the author of celebrity biographies like “Kate: The Woman Who Was Hepburn,” which details what he says was Hepburn’s lesbianism and Tracy’s bisexuality, using Mr. Bowers (identified as Scotty) as one of several sources. “Some of the pushback is going to be homophobia,” Mr. Mann added. “But there will also be people who say he’s making it up to sell books and others who say why can’t you let these people rest in peace.”

“Kate” drew all those reactions and more when it came out in 2006. In particular, “Spencer Tracy: A Biography,” written by James Curtis and published in October, dismisses Mr. Mann’s account of Hepburn’s and Tracy’s sexuality, characterizing Mr. Bowers as unreliable. “Bowers is full of glib stories and revelations, all cheerfully unverifiable,” Mr. Curtis writes.

Jennifer Grant, the daughter of Cary Grant, declined to comment on Mr. Bowers’s book. But her spokeswoman said Ms. Grant’s book, “Good Stuff: A Reminiscence of My Father, Cary Grant,” published in 2011, acknowledges that she knew him to be very straight and that he was amused by chatter that he was bisexual.

The ABC News anchor Cynthia McFadden, an executor of the Hepburn estate, said it was its long-standing practice not to comment about books like “Full Service.”

Mr. Entrekin said that the book had been vetted by a libel lawyer. “Based on his comments, we deleted some information,” he said.

Lawyers who specialize in celebrity-related matters said neither federal copyright law nor the patchwork of state-based “right of publicity” laws offer recourse to heirs or estates displeased with assertions published in a memoir. “They might be in tears, but there’s nothing they can do about it,” said Alan U. Schwartz, a veteran entertainment lawyer at Greenberg Traurig.

A $20 bill, given as a tip, according to Mr. Bowers, bought his services in the beginning. That was 1946, and he was 23. As Mr. Bowers tells it, he stumbled into his profession by accident.

Newly discharged from the Marines after fighting in the Pacific during World War II, Mr. Bowers got a job pumping gas at the corner of Van Ness Avenue and Hollywood Boulevard, not far from Paramount Pictures. One day Walter Pidgeon (“Mrs. Miniver”) drove up in a Lincoln two-door coupe, according to the book, and propositioned Mr. Bowers, who accepted.

Soon, word got around among Pidgeon’s friends, and Mr. Bowers, from his base at the station, started “arranging similar stuff” for some of Bowers’s more adventurous friends.

Many clients were not famous, Mr. Bowers said. Film production was flourishing in the late 1940s, and Los Angeles became a destination for writers, set designers, hairstylists and other “artists with open minds,” as Mr. Bowers put it. It was also a time of the vice squad, which raided gay bars. “The station was a safer hangout,” he said. “Sometimes police would come around, sure. But I think I never got caught partly because I kept everything in my head. There was no little black book.”

Perhaps it’s hard to look at Mr. Bowers today — an elderly man with sloped shoulders and a shock of unruly white hair — and believe that a half-century ago he was sought out by some of the most handsome men to have ever strutted through Hollywood. But after some time with him, the still-sparkling blues and the impish smile help convince you that he could have definitely had seductive powers.

Mr. Bowers quit pumping gas in 1950 and says he supported himself for the next two decades through prostitution, bartending and working as a handyman. Mr. Bowers writes that, in addition to his gay clients, he also gained a following among heterosexual actors like Desi Arnaz, who used him as a type of matchmaking service. Mr. Bowers, who says he personally “prefers the sexual company of women,” says he never took payment for connecting people like Arnaz with bedroom partners.

“I wasn’t a pimp,” he said. (Mr. Arnaz’s wife at the time, Lucille Ball, apparently felt otherwise, according to “Full Service.”)

Mr. Bowers said he continued this life until the onset of AIDS in the 1980s he also married in 1984. AIDS “brought an end to the sexual freedoms that had defined much of life in Tinseltown ever since the birth of movies,” Mr. Bowers writes. “It was obvious that my days of arranging tricks for others were over. It was too unsafe a game to play anymore.”

Over the years, according to Mr. Bowers, various writers he encountered considered writing about him. One was Dominick Dunne, whose son, the actor and director Griffin Dunne, provided a blurb for the “Full Service” book jacket. (“A jaw-dropping firsthand account of closeted life in Hollywood during the ’40s and ’50s.”)

Mr. Bowers says Tennessee Williams, during a visit to the Beverly Hills Hotel in the 1960s, wrote “a revealing exposé.” But Mr. Bowers hated it, and Williams scrapped it. “He made me sound like a mad queen flying over Hollywood Boulevard on a broomstick directing all the queens in town,” he said. “It was way over the top.”


5. Whitewashing

Few people have heard the name Margarita Carmen Cansino. Her father was Spanish Roma and her mother was Irish-American. In typical Hollywood fashion, she was typecast as the exotic foreigner in a series of B movies. When Fox didn’t renew her contract, she tried her luck with Columbia.

To make her more marketable, Harry Cohn transformed her into Rita Hayworth.

She lost weight, dyed her hair red, and underwent painful electrolysis procedures to raise her hairline, since her low hairline was considered ethnic.

Once she was marketed as a white actress, Hayworth rose to international fame and was even nicknamed “The Love Goddess.” She made 61 movies and was ranked #19 on the American Film Institute&aposs List of Greatest Stars of All Time.

Studios certainly weren’t above changing their actors’ appearances and choosing stage names for them. Columbia pressured Marilyn Novak to use the name Kim Novak. 20th-Century Fox told Norma Jean Mortenson to go by Marilyn Monroe, a name she never liked. But Rita Hayworth&aposs price of fame was complete renunciation of her background and erasure of her natural beauty.


Usage [ edit ]

With the inclusion of morality clauses in the contracts of Hollywood actors in the 1920s, some closeted stars contracted marriages of convenience to protect their public reputations and preserve their careers. A noteworthy exception that demonstrated the precarious position of the public homosexual was that of William Haines, who brought his career to a sudden end at the age of 35. He refused to end his relationship with his male partner, Jimmy Shields, and enter into a marriage at the direction of his studio employer, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Α] Some companies punished actors for defying these clauses by not paying them. Universal Film Company justified their actions by labeling the actor's behavior as unacceptable this included having attractions that weren't heterosexual. These clauses placed actors in a difficult situation as they put their livelihoods on the line and essentially pressured them into lavender marriages. Lavender marriages were also a way to preserve the public's image of a celebrity, especially if these celebrities were famous for their looks or sex appeal. Β] The end of the 20th century brought about a change for the LGBTQ+ community, particularly after the 1969 Stonewall riots. Because of this, lavender marriages between celebrities became less common. Γ]

The term lavender marriage has been used to characterize the following couples/individuals:

  • The English broadcaster and journalist Nancy Spain considered entering a lavender marriage to disguise her relationship with Joan Werner Laurie, a magazine and book editor. & # 916 e # 93
  • The marriage of Robert Taylor and Barbara Stanwyck supposedly disguised the purported bisexuality of both and has been characterized as lavender for that reason, but it was prompted by the need to protect both their reputations after a Photoplay magazine article reported they had been living together for years while unmarried. & # 917 e # 93
  • Actor Rock Hudson, troubled by rumors that Confidential magazine was planning to expose his homosexuality, married Phyllis Gates, a young woman employed by his agent, in 1955. Gates insisted until the time of her own death that she had had no idea the marriage was anything other than legitimate. & # 918 e # 93
  • The term has been applied to the marriage of Tyrone Power and French actress Annabella in 1939. Η]
  • American theater actress and producer Katharine Cornell married stage director Guthrie McClintic in 1921. She appeared only in productions he directed, and they lived together in their Manhattan townhouse until his death in 1961. ⎖]
  • Swedish Hollywood actor Nils Asther and vaudeville entertainer Vivian Duncan had a brief marriage of convenience that resulted in one child Asther was a well known homosexual who had a relationship with actor/stuntman Kenneth DuMain. ⎗]
  • Hollywood film actress Janet Gaynor and costume designer Adrian were married from 1939 until his death in 1959, and had a son together. Gaynor was rumored to be bisexual and Adrian was openly gay within the Hollywood community, and it is assumed their relationship was a lavender marriage mandated by the studio system. Gaynor later re-married, to producer Paul Gregory and she and Gregory were close friends with Broadway actress Mary Martin, who was rumored to be bisexual, and Martin's husband Richard Halliday, a drama critic who was a closeted gay man. The foursome lived together on Martin's ranch in the state of Goiás, Brazil, for several years. ⎘]

Although lavender marriages are typically associated with LGBTQ+ celebrities, people of all backgrounds have used them for protection and convenience. These individuals have found solace on websites where they can express their distress about their marriages of convenience, but not many have talked about their experience outside of the Internet, apart from an article in The Guardian in November 2019, asking individuals to share their reasons for marrying for convenience. ⎙] In November 2017, an article was published by the BBC about marriages of convenience in Asian LGBTQ+ communities in the UK. & # 9114 & # 93

The BBC article and its participants refer to a "marriage of convenience" rather than a lavender marriage, but they are still referring to a marriage that hides one or both partner's sexuality. Individuals reported that family expectations and keeping up an image were several reasons why they had a marriage of convenience. Awemir Iqbal, a gay man originally from Pakistan and residing in West Yorkshire, stated that he understood why people had a marriage of convenience to satisfy their family's wishes. A fear of tarnishing the family name, or being disowned if they were to express their sexuality by pursuing same-sex relationships, leads some to enter into a marriage of convenience. Support for LGBTQ+ individuals comes from "Karma Nirvana", a group to help individuals escaping forced marriages. Karma Nirvana's founder, Jasvinder Sanghera, says there are probably more marriages of convenience than are reported. Websites such as Mocmatch, Saathinight, Al-Jannah are places where individuals can find partners to partake in a marriage of convenience. & # 9114 & # 93

Lavender marriages or marriages of convenience can also be found in China, where same-sex marriages or the LGBTQ+ community are not accepted. During the Chinese New Year, people travel home to celebrate with their families, but young people also have to worry about pressures surrounding marriage and having children. For gay Chinese men and lesbian Chinese women, societal pressure to have a heterosexual relationship can be so profound that they often turn to lavender marriages or "cooperative [marriages]". Some individuals, like Tiger Zhao, marry lesbian women to undertake societal and parental expectations and ease some pressure. Many couples report that the lavender marriages do more harm than good if individuals deny themselves the expression of their sexuality outside of the marriage. The topic is not publicly discussed because homosexuality is not widely accepted. [ citação necessária ]

However, smaller LGBTQ+ communities have gained enough momentum for an app to have been developed specifically focused on providing lavender marriages for LGBTQ+ individuals. The app, called "Queers", has been discontinued, but it made such an impact in the LGBTQ+ community that former members have asked Queers founder, Liao Zhuoying, for a partner of the opposite sex they can take home to prevent nagging from family members. & # 9115 & # 93


18 Salacious Scandals from the Golden Age of Hollywood

The secret cross dresser J. Edgar Hoover kept personal files on hundreds of people in part to protect himself from blackmail and innuendo. FBI

4. J. Edgar Hoover&rsquos files on Hollywood personalities

After meeting Charles Chaplin at a dinner party, J. Edgar Hoover began using the resources of the FBI to compile a dossier on what he considered to be the Hollywood star&rsquos un-American beliefs and activities. Eventually the file grew to over 1900 pages, and was instrumental in Chaplin&rsquos long exile from his adopted country. Chaplin was not alone. Hoover used, or rather abused, his position as head of the FBI to keep files on stars, directors, producers, and reporters &ndash indeed on anyone whom he considered possibly subversive or anti-American. The files were held for the purpose of blackmail, and were extensive collections of personal information and activities. He documented, often through little more than innuendo, potential homosexual activity, drug use, alcohol use (both during and after prohibition), sexual peccadilloes, extramarital affairs, and political beliefs.

When he found it beneficial to his own interests, Hoover leaked information, collected but often unconfirmed, to press representatives sympathetic to his views, which were anti-communist, anti-Semitic, and often anti-feminist. Scandals in the Hollywood periodicals of the day, later amplified by the mainstream press, were fed by the FBI files as Hoover attempted to discredit Hollywood&rsquos elite. Most of the information he collected and held secretly was intended to be used for his personal benefit, and the vast majority of the information was collected without regard to its accuracy or its relevance to the mission of the FBI, as were most of Hoover&rsquos &ldquopersonal files&rdquo. One of the greatest scandals in Hollywood&rsquos, indeed in all of American history, was the abuse of power routinely practiced by the man who considered himself to be the greatest lawman in America throughout his long and self-serving career.


Homosexuals in Hollywood

I was watching some old musicals and was struck by the tremendous influence of gays and lesbians on those films.

From set design to costumes to the wonderful choreography, you can clearly see the whimsical, clever, happy, passionate, and inventive influence on these terrific films.

From costume designer Adrian to Edith Head to Erte and Orry Kelly and so many more, hats off to our creative and gifted gay brothers and their achievements.

Gays and Lesbians have always been the backbone of film as well as dance and theater.

In 1929, the top movie box office draw was an out gay man, Billy Haines. Our most beloved stars have been or are gay.

It is only natural that the creative influence would extend to the "back of the house" crafts.

Adrian was NOT gay, and I'm the dame who can prove it!!

Is this supposed to be a newsflash? If so, you've failed miserably.

[quote]I'm the dame who can prove it!!

I knew this was coming. Next we'll hear from the tired old Helen Lawson troll.

If people want to fulfill stereotypes, I suppose that's their prerogative. I've been working as an actuary for an insurance company for 11 years, and have yet to meet another gay man in this field. I'm very proud to be an individual, and not just toeing the stereotype line by becoming an actor, flight attendant or hairdresser.

We'll have to work harder to excite you, r4. That's our only purpose here.

Believe me, Adrian was a flaming homo.

No R3, it was not meant to be a newsflash, only a thread to start a discussion on the great history of gays and lesbians in the entertainment field and to offer something else here at the DL other than the MJ death and the attending racism it has sparked.

Here's an interesting article, OP on gay set and costume design. It stems from gay painters and all creative arts. Americans probably don't realize the influence of gays and lesbians in their daily lives and on the culture they enjoy.

Also, Adrian was gay. I remember an AD spread on him and Janet Gaynor, "the wife", and the decor and the fact they sat miles apart on a sofa told the whole story.

Billy Haines was not an "out gay star." He was a star whose popularity was waning, he was outed (arrested I think), and the studio used that to get rid of him. He became a decorator and was with his male partner for many years, and they were both friends to stars from Carole Lombard to Joan Crawford. I have enormous respect for Billy Haines for being an out gay man at that time, but the public was not aware of his sexuality so I don't think "out gay star" is accurate. Out to his co-workers, probably, but that's it.

It was Haines, I think, who ended up in court on ridiculous charges because a young boy at the beach started hanging around the group Haines was with. Nothing improper happened, the gay men were just nice to a kid who approached them but his father pitched a fit and made it seem as if the child had been somehow harmed. No one even claimed that anything sexual had happened, I don't think, just that these awful gay men were in the general vicinity of a male child. There are reproductions of stories about it in Hollywood Babylon and the homophobia is dripping from the pages. "Pink poodles" and every other silly ass, sneering stereotype is brought out (who knows if Haines even had a pink poodle?) but none of it changes the fact all that happened was a young boy approached the group and they let him hang out for a while.

I was under the impression that Billy Haines had a partner, made no secret about it, refused to employ starlets for PR situations and when he wouldn't play along, Jack Warner canned him. It was only then that he had to have a new profession and began decorating.

The fact that Busby Berkeley WASN'T Gay is one of the more amazing things I've ever heard.

R11, Haines was at Metro, not Warners. It was L.B. Mayer who canned him. And, yes, he was pretty adamant about living an out gay life with his partner, Jimmy. He was not "out" to the general public but he certainly didn't want to hide who he was. It was the studio that was doing all the damage control, which was fine whenever he was a top star but not when his popularity began to wane and he got caught in those compromising legal positions. Read "Wisecracker."

Billy Haines was the only guy at MGM I didn't bang (except for Lassie!)

Cristina Crawford quoted her mother, Joan in "Mommie Dearest" as saying, "Billy and Jimmy have the best marriage in town!"

Edith Head is not a drag name, dear. She was not a gay brother.

But Edith "ate at the Y" so she counts, dear.

How about Fred Astaire? and Eleanor Powell? Both seemed so talented and so gay.

Eleanor Powell was so beautiful. sigh.

That would make her a sister.

For me, it is the whimsey, the fantasy or elegance of the sets that took you into the story, that became almost another actor in the scene.

Now, so much today is computer generated and doesn't have the emotion of set construction.

I love the sets for The Women and the big Hollywood musical numbers.

The costumes Joan wore in the 40's. And yes, hard to believe Busby Berkeley wasn't queer.

Another Hollywood gay was Mitchell Leisen, who was a costume and set designer before becoming a director. Leisen's screwball comedies like Easy Money and Midnight were enormously popular and helped define an era and a genre, and his film Death Takes A Holiday is considered a solid, contemplative mood piece. Leisen did marry but he's also widely known to be gay or least bi-sexual.

Gene Kelly is on TMC right now. The sets and costumes really are his partners. All done by gays.

I worked for many years, the 60s to the early 90s at 20th and MCA, in the shop dept. We're everywhere on the Lot.

Charles Walters was a great gay director/dancer at MGM. He directed Judy in Summer Stock and Easter Parade and danced with her in Presenting Lily Mars. Roger Edens, Judy's vocal coach was gay. Kay Thompson was a bisexual. Sydney Guilaroff, the best damned hairdresser in Hollywood, was MGM's resident stylist. Adrian and Irene were gay. Hell, EVERYONE was gay.

Edith Head only looked gay.

Orry Kelly was also a terrific costume designer - think Marilyn's near nude dress in Some Like It Hot, he got an oscar for his costumes in Les Girls etc- and he was gay, and it seems very good pals with Cary Grant when they were young - presumably before Randolph Scott came on the scene.

and Travilla of course who also did some great Monroe costumes. I think Oleg Cassini was the only straight dress designer in hollywood which meant he got lots of action - having romanced Grace Kelly and marrying Gene Tierney among his other conquests.

All those chorus boys (including the young George Chakiris) one sees dancing around those female stars like Marilyn, Jane Russell must all have had a great time too.

Ditto Charles Walters as mentioned - he is the dancer with Joan Crawford in the hilarious Torch Song.

Tommy Rall is a terrific gay dancer from the golden age and he is still going and has a website!

Love him with Ann Miller in Kiss Me Kate and he is one of those brothers in 7 Brides - he was also the ballet dancer with Babs in the send up of Swan Lake in Funny Girl.

There is a good interview with him in the extras on the 7 Brides dvd.

r27 again - Tommy Rall also has a good role in the 1955 My Sister Eileen competing with Bob Fosse (they have a great dance number together) for Janet Leigh.

Speaking of chorus boys all those sailors in South Pacific can't all have been straight, and they include body builder Ed Fury who had a few bit parts at Fox (he was photographed with Widmark, Susan Hayward etc) and he is the guy introduced to Joan Crawford in Female On The Beach - bet he could tell a few tales, if still going.

It must have been fun on the set and in the dressing rooms for Gentlemen Prefer Blondes when they were shooting Jane's "Anyone Here For Love" number with all the guys in those skin tight flesh color shorts.

The very hetero or so it seemed Howard Hawks seems to have had a penchant for cute young guys in his movies: Rick Nelson in Rio Bravo, young hot James Caan in El Dorado .

Busby Berkeley was gay or probably bi. I worked with this lady who her father did something in show business, but she wouldn't tell me who here father was because she was extremely private. Anyway, I watched a documentary about Busby Berkeley, and I came in the next day to work. I mentioned the documentary I watched the night before, and she said she too watched that documentary. She said those people who were interview were being nice, she swore the man was gay. Even though he was married, it was a front from what she told me. This woman did not believe in making up stories. She was a very straightforward person. And she rarely gossiped because she didn't believe in it.

"South Pacific" sailor hunks also included Roy Ely (Tarzan) and Doug McClure.

I want the truth about Edith. Did she really eat at the Y? Costume design seems a rather unusual career choice for a lesbian.

"Costume design seems a rather unusual career choice for a lesbian."

Retire your gay card immediately!

I think that was a rumor that was going on for years, but I heard it wasn't true. Edith Head was not gay. Also, she was very happily married from what I heard as well.

ALL of the top costume designers at the Hollywood studios were gay men in the 1930s. Adrian, Orry Kelly, Travis Banton, Walter Plunkett and Howard Greer. and it drove the studio heads like Mayer, Zanuck, Cohn and Warner crazy because they couldn't maintain much control over these gay men who became the confidantes of all their female stars.

It wasn't until the end of the decade that they were replaced by more practical women designers like Edith Head, Irene and Helen Rose who showed a bit more loyalty to the studios.

Edith Head was only gay for herself. She was tightly wound, pulled all the credit to herself, and wouldn't have admitted an lesbian impulse no matter what her natural inclinations would have been because she was all ambition and status.

I'm going to butcher a line from "Before Night Falls" but it goes something like.

Homosexuals have long defined what we consider to be beauty.

Were the gays in the old days more out to friends than today's Hollywood gays? Was there a larger circle of gays? Do the 21st century Hollywood gays keep it all in to a much smaller group?

Irene Sharaff (not to be confused with the aforementioned Irene) was an out Lesbian costume and production designer and a vital part of MGM's Arthur Freed unit as well as a 5 time Oscar winner of such notable films as West Side Story, An American in Paris, Meet Me in St. Louis, The King and I, Cleopatra and Funny Girl.

Irene Sharaff's constumes were indeed fabulous for Liz in Cleo and Streisand in both Funny Girl and Hello Dolly.

Edith Head was a lesbian, OP?

Busby Berkeley could have been bi, R30, but he was married 7 times, and was named as the other man in at least one divorce action, so I doubt if he could be called gay.

Then again, it's hard to imagine a straight guy thinking this one up:

Thank you so much for a YouTube link, r43.

Oh fuck off, R44. If you're on a crusade against YouTube then don't click on the link.

Sharraff's costumes for Streisand in Funny Girl were horrid.

That brown monstrosity she wears while performing "People" is beyond description.

The only acceptable gown she wears in FG isn't even a gown- it's in the scene where Arnstein turns the casino job. It's the grey draped dress that's cut on the bias accenting her great hipline and butt.

I thought Orry-Kelly was straight, seriously.

I have enormous respect for Billy Haines for being an out gay man at that time, but the public was not aware of his sexuality so I don't think "out gay star" is accurate.

Hmm, I don't know about that. People living in cities with gayborhoods and the sophisticates they knew, would have recognized he was gay. Franklin Pangborn anyone?

"How about Fred Astaire? and Eleanor Powell? Both seemed so talented and so gay.

Eleanor Powell was so beautiful. sigh."

Eleanor was very religious, and even had a tv show involving God. Not even gay around the edges. Astaire started in show business in 1905. By his teens, he and his sister were famous. Fred had to have been at least exposed to gay people. He was also friends with David, the Prince of Wales.

"Ditto Charles Walters as mentioned - he is the dancer with Joan Crawford in the hilarious Torch Song."

This has to be her gayest movie.

Which "Irene" jumped out of a window?

It was the "Irene" who was married to MGM scenic artist Cedric Gibbons. she lived in the Roosevelt Hotel, I believe, and laid out all her costume sketches around the living room on day, wrote a suicide note that read "find someone good to design" and promptly jumped out the window.

Wasn't Merle Oberon married to Cedric Gibbons? But he was actually gay.

And he wasn't merely a "scenic artist" he was head of production design at MGM for 3 decades and his name appears prominently in thousands of their film credits.

You are correct R50, Gibbons was indeed head of Design at MGM and not just a lowly scenic artist, so exfuckincuse me. I DO have the details about Irene's suicide correct,so why dont you stick your head up a dead bear's asshole, mr. anal retentive prisspot.


Assista o vídeo: Gay men who were married to women - Põe Na Roda (Junho 2022).


Comentários:

  1. Kik

    De jeito nenhum

  2. Alden

    it is necessary to try everything

  3. Mosegi

    Ooooooooooooooo !! Há muito que eu queria ver isso !!!!

  4. Dassous

    Realmente e como eu nunca pensei sobre isso antes

  5. Wohehiv

    a resposta rápida, a característica da mente :)

  6. Richmond

    Acho que você vai permitir o erro. Eu posso provar. Escreva para mim em PM, vamos conversar.

  7. Stanwik

    Thanks to whoever is doing this blog!



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