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Glenn cruza os EUA em 3 horas - História


O major John Glenn, dos fuzileiros navais dos EUA, estabeleceu um novo recorde ao cruzar os EUA em 3 horas e 23 minutos, a uma velocidade média de 723 MPH. Glenn pilotou um Navy Vought Crusader. O vôo teve origem em Los Angeles e terminou em Nova York.


John Glenn: primeiro americano a orbitar a Terra, o homem mais velho no espaço

O primeiro americano a orbitar a Terra, John Glenn fez história novamente quando, aos 77 anos, se tornou a pessoa mais velha a viajar no espaço. Mas antes de ser nacionalmente reconhecido como um herói, ele colocou sua vida em risco por seu país muitas vezes.

Nascido em 18 de julho de 1921, em Cambridge, Ohio, John Herschel Glenn Jr. era filho de John e Teresa Sproat Glenn. Enquanto tocava na banda do colégio, ele conheceu Anna Margaret Castor, e mais tarde se casou com ela. Após a graduação, ele frequentou o Muskingum College, onde obteve o título de Bacharel em Ciências em Engenharia. Após o ataque japonês a Pearl Harbor, Glenn entrou no Programa de Cadetes da Aviação Naval. No final das contas, ele voou em 59 missões de combate no Pacífico durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Após o fim da guerra, Glenn serviu como instrutor de treinamento de vôo avançado em Corpus Christi, Texas. Ele voou 90 missões na Coréia, derrubando três MiGs durante seus últimos nove dias de combate.

De lá, Glenn frequentou a Escola de Pilotos de Testes no Naval Air Test Center em Maryland e, em seguida, passou a servir como oficial de projeto em várias aeronaves. Ele frequentou aulas na Universidade de Maryland por dois anos e meio, quando foi designado para o Departamento de Design de Caças do Bureau of Aeronautics da Marinha, o precursor do Bureau of Naval Weapons.

Em julho de 1957, Glenn estabeleceu um recorde de velocidade transcontinental, voando de Los Angeles a Nova York em 3 horas e 23 minutos. Seu foi o primeiro vôo cross-country com velocidade supersônica média.

Glenn recebeu o Distinguished Flying Cross seis vezes, bem como uma série de outras honrarias por seu serviço militar. Ele e sua esposa têm dois filhos.

Além do céu

Em abril de 1959, Glenn foi selecionado como astronauta do Projeto Mercury. Ele se tornou parte do grupo Mercury Seven, os primeiros astronautas selecionados pela NASA. Glenn serviu como astronauta reserva para os dois primeiros americanos no espaço, Alan Shepard e Virgil "Gus" Grissom. [Projeto Mercúrio: Fotos dos primeiros voos espaciais tripulados da NASA]

Na época, os Estados Unidos estavam no meio de uma corrida com a União Soviética para alcançar as estrelas. O astronauta russo Yuri Gagarin se tornou o primeiro homem lançado ao espaço em 12 de abril de 1961, batendo Alan Shepard por menos de um mês. A nave de Gagarin o levou a uma órbita completa ao redor da Terra, tornando-o a primeira pessoa a circular o planeta também. [Infográfico: 1º americano em órbita: como a NASA e John Glenn fizeram história]

Em 20 de fevereiro de 1962, os Estados Unidos mostraram que tinham o mesmo vigor de seus concorrentes. Os voos anteriores de Shepard e Grissom ao espaço não haviam percorrido todo o planeta. Quando Glenn explodiu no espaço a bordo da cápsula Mercury's Friendship 7, ele orbitou a Terra três vezes ao longo de quase cinco horas, viajando a mais de 17.000 mph. [VÍDEO: Amizade 7: 50º aniversário em órbita da América]

Mas sua jornada não foi isenta de riscos. Após a primeira órbita, um problema mecânico com o sistema de controle automático exigiu que Glenn assumisse o controle manual da nave. Os sensores também indicaram que o escudo térmico, que protegeria o astronauta das temperaturas letais criadas na reentrada na atmosfera, estava solto. Para ajudar a protegê-lo em seu retorno à Terra, Glenn manteve o pacote retrorocket, que foi projetado para ser descartado, no lugar. O exame de acompanhamento do sistema de controle revelou que o indicador estava incorreto. O escudo estava bom, mas a experiência foi certamente angustiante. [FOTOS: John Glenn, primeiro americano em órbita]

Uma aposentadoria ativa

Glenn aposentou-se do Corpo de Fuzileiros Navais em 1965 como coronel. Ele trabalhou como executivo de negócios por uma década antes de ser eleito para o Senado dos EUA em 1974. O democrata de Ohio fez uma campanha vigorosa por financiamento para ciência, educação e exploração espacial. Em 1984, ele fez uma candidatura fracassada à indicação presidencial democrata. Foi senador até 1999.

Apesar de sua idade avançada, Glenn ainda não havia concluído o programa espacial. Em 29 de outubro de 1998, enquanto ainda era senador, Glenn fez história novamente quando viajou no ônibus espacial Discovery para se tornar o viajante espacial mais velho. Ao longo de nove dias, o ônibus espacial orbitou a Terra 134 vezes.

Glenn atuou como especialista em carga útil, participando de vários experimentos para testar como seu corpo de 77 anos respondia ao ambiente sem gravidade. A nave também carregava o satélite SPARTAN para estudar o vento solar e hardware para uma missão de manutenção no Telescópio Espacial Hubble.

Em 2012, Glenn recebeu a Medalha Presidencial da Liberdade. Ele também estava presente para a aposentadoria do ônibus espacial Discovery, embora tenha criticado o fim do programa do ônibus espacial por atrasar as pesquisas.

Embora o segundo vôo de Glenn ao espaço tenha sido completamente diferente do primeiro, ambos foram missões históricas e que estabeleceram recordes. Mas a maioria dos americanos sempre se lembrará dele como o primeiro americano a orbitar a Terra.


John Glenn, primeiro astronauta dos EUA a orbitar a Terra, morre aos 95 anos

WASHINGTON - John Glenn, cujo voo de 1962 como o primeiro astronauta dos EUA a orbitar a Terra o tornou um herói americano e o impulsionou a uma longa carreira no Senado dos EUA, morreu na quinta-feira. O último sobrevivente dos astronautas originais do Mercury 7 tinha 95 anos.

Glenn morreu no James Cancer Hospital em Columbus, onde ficou hospitalizado por mais de uma semana, disse Hank Wilson, diretor de comunicações da Escola de Relações Públicas John Glenn.

John Herschel Glenn Jr. teve dois grandes caminhos de carreira que muitas vezes se cruzaram: vôo e política, e ele disparou em ambos.

Antes de ganhar fama ao orbitar o mundo, ele foi piloto de caça em duas guerras e, como piloto de teste, estabeleceu um recorde de velocidade transcontinental. Mais tarde, ele serviu 24 anos no Senado de Ohio. Um raro revés foi uma candidatura fracassada em 1984 à indicação presidencial democrata.

Sua longa carreira política permitiu que ele voltasse ao espaço no ônibus espacial Discovery aos 77 anos em 1998, uma volta de vitória cósmica que ele apreciou e transformou em um momento de aprendizado sobre envelhecer. Ele detém o recorde de pessoa mais velha no espaço.

Mais do que tudo, John Glenn foi o derradeiro e único herói espacial americano: um veterano de combate com um sorriso fácil, um casamento forte de 70 anos e nervos de aço. Escolas, um centro espacial e o aeroporto de Columbus, Ohio, foram nomeados em sua homenagem. As crianças também.

A União Soviética saltou à frente na exploração do espaço ao colocar o satélite Sputnik 1 em órbita em 1957 e, em seguida, lançou o primeiro homem no espaço, o cosmonauta Yuri Gagarin, em um voo orbital de 108 minutos em 12 de abril de 1961. Após dois voos suborbitais por Alan Shepard Jr. e Gus Grissom, coube a Glenn ser o primeiro americano a orbitar a Terra.

& # 8220Godspeed, John Glenn, & # 8221 colega astronauta Scott Carpenter falaram pelo rádio pouco antes de Glenn disparar de uma plataforma de lançamento do Cabo Canaveral, agora um marco histórico nacional, para um lugar que os Estados Unidos nunca haviam estado. Na época daquele vôo de 20 de fevereiro de 1962, Glenn tinha 40 anos.

Com a frase totalmente comercial, & # 8220Roger, o relógio está funcionando, nós & # 8217 estamos em andamento & # 8221 Glenn transmitiu o rádio à Terra ao iniciar suas 4 horas, 55 minutos e 23 segundos no espaço. Anos depois, ele explicou que disse isso porque não sentia que havia decolado e era a única maneira pela qual sabia que havia lançado.

Durante o voo, Glenn proferiu uma frase que repetia com frequência ao longo da vida: & # 8220Zero G, e me sinto bem. & # 8221

& # 8220Ainda parece tão vívido para mim, & # 8221 Glenn disse em uma entrevista de 2012 para a Associated Press no 50º aniversário do vôo. & # 8220Eu ainda posso pseudo sentir algumas das mesmas sensações que tive naquela época durante o lançamento e tudo. & # 8221

Glenn disse que muitas vezes perguntavam se estava com medo, e ele respondeu: & # 8220Se você está falando sobre o medo que supera o que você deve fazer, não. Você treinou muito para esses voos. & # 8221

No entanto, o passeio de Glenn & # 8217 na apertada cápsula Friendship 7 teve seus momentos assustadores. Os sensores mostraram que seu escudo térmico estava solto após três órbitas, e o Controle da Missão temeu que ele pudesse queimar durante a reentrada, quando as temperaturas atingissem 3.000 graus. Mas o escudo térmico aguentou.

Mesmo antes disso, Glenn voou em céus perigosos. Ele foi um piloto de caça na Segunda Guerra Mundial e na Coréia que voou baixo, teve seu avião crivado de balas, voou com o grande jogador do beisebol Ted Williams e ganhou apelidos machistas durante 149 missões de combate. E como piloto de teste, ele quebrou recordes de aviação.

O telegênico fuzileiro naval de olhos verdes até ganhou $ 25.000 no game show & # 8220Name That Tune & # 8221 com um parceiro de 10 anos. E isso foi antes de 6 de abril de 1959, quando sua vida mudou ao ser selecionado como um dos astronautas do Mercury 7 e instantaneamente começou a atrair mais do que sua cota de holofotes.

Glenn nos anos posteriores regalou multidões com histórias de testes de aspirantes a astronautas da NASA & # 8217s, de testes psicológicos - vêm com 20 respostas para a pergunta aberta & # 8220Eu sou & # 8221 - para sobreviver a um giro que empurrou a gravidade 16 vezes normal contra o seu corpo, estourando os vasos sanguíneos.

Mas não foi tão ruim quanto vir ao Cabo Canaveral para ver o primeiro teste de foguete não tripulado.

& # 8220E & # 8217estamos vendo essa coisa subir e subir e subir & # 8230 e de repente explodiu sobre nós, e essa foi a nossa introdução ao Atlas, & # 8221 Glenn disse em 2011. & # 8220Nós olhamos uns aos outros e gostariam de ter uma reunião com os engenheiros pela manhã. & # 8221

Em 1959, Glenn escreveu na revista Life: & # 8220 As viagens espaciais estão na fronteira da minha profissão. Vai ser realizado e eu quero estar nisso. Há também um elemento de dever simples envolvido. Estou convencido de que tenho algo a oferecer a este projeto. & # 8221

Esse senso de dever foi instilado desde cedo. Glenn nasceu em 18 de julho de 1921 em Cambridge, Ohio, e cresceu em New Concord, Ohio, com o apelido de & # 8220Bud. & # 8221. Ele se juntou à banda da cidade como trompetista aos 10 anos e acompanhou seu pai em um Memorial Day em uma versão ecoante de & # 8220Taps. & # 8221 Em suas memórias de 1999, Glenn escreveu & # 8220 que esse sentimento resume minha infância. Isso formou minhas crenças e meu senso de responsabilidade. Tudo o que veio depois disso veio naturalmente. & # 8221

Seu amor por voar durou toda a vida John Glenn Sênior falou sobre as muitas noites de verão em que chegou em casa e encontrou seu filho correndo pelo pátio com os braços estendidos, fingindo que estava pilotando um avião. Em junho passado, em uma cerimônia que mudou o nome do aeroporto de Columbus para ele, Glenn lembrou-se de implorar a seus pais que o levassem àquele aeroporto para ver os aviões sempre que passassem pela cidade: & # 8220Era algo que me fascinou. & # 8221 Ele pilotava seu próprio avião particular até os 90 anos.

O objetivo de Glenn de se tornar um piloto comercial foi mudado pela Segunda Guerra Mundial. Ele deixou Muskingum College para ingressar no Naval Air Corps e, logo depois, nos fuzileiros navais.

Ele se tornou um piloto de caça bem-sucedido que executou 59 missões perigosas, muitas vezes como voluntário ou como reserva de reserva de pilotos designados. Uma guerra depois, na Coreia, ele ganhou o apelido de & # 8220MiG-Mad Marine & # 8221 (ou & # 8220Old Magnet A -, & # 8221 que às vezes ele parafraseou como & # 8220Old Magnet Tail. & # 8221)

& # 8220Fui eu quem desceu e os apanhou & # 8221 Glenn disse, explicando que costumava aterrar com enormes buracos na lateral do avião porque não gostava de disparar de grandes altitudes.

A vida pública de Glenn e # 8217 começou quando ele quebrou o recorde transcontinental de velocidade no ar, indo de Los Angeles a Nova York em 3 horas, 23 minutos e 8 segundos. Com seu Crusader em média 725 mph, o vôo de 1957 provou que o jato pode suportar o estresse quando empurrado para velocidades máximas em longas distâncias.

Em Nova York, ele teve as boas-vindas de um herói e # 8217s - seu primeiro desfile de fita adesiva. Ele ganhou outro após seu voo no Friendship 7.

Essa missão também introduziu Glenn na política. Ele discursou em uma sessão conjunta do Congresso e jantou na Casa Branca. Ele se tornou amigo do presidente Kennedy e aliado e amigo de seu irmão, Robert. Os Kennedys o incentivaram a entrar na política e, depois de alguns inícios difíceis, ele o fez.

Glenn passou 24 anos no Senado dos EUA, representando Ohio por mais tempo do que qualquer outro senador na história do estado. Ele anunciou sua aposentadoria iminente em 1997, 35 anos depois de se tornar o primeiro americano em órbita, dizendo que & # 8220 ainda não há cura para o aniversário comum. & # 8221

Glenn & # 8217s retornaram ao espaço em um segundo voo há muito aguardado em 1998 a bordo do ônibus espacial Discovery. Ele teve que se mover a bordo do ônibus espacial por muito mais tempo - nove dias em comparação com pouco menos de cinco horas em 1962 -, bem como dormir e fazer experiências com bolhas na ausência de peso.

Em uma entrevista coletiva do espaço, Glenn disse & # 8220 para olhar para este tipo de criação aqui e não acreditar em Deus é para mim impossível. & # 8221

A NASA adaptou uma série de experimentos de reação geriátrica para criar um propósito científico para a missão de Glenn & # 8217s, mas havia mais do que isso: um renascimento da emoção dos primeiros dias da corrida espacial, uma bonança de relações públicas e o presente de uma vida.

& # 8220A América devia a John Glenn um segundo vôo & # 8221 o administrador da NASA Dan Goldin disse.

Mais tarde, Glenn escreveria que, quando mencionou a ideia de voltar ao espaço para sua esposa, Annie, ela respondeu: & # 8220Sobre meu cadáver. & # 8221

Glenn e seus companheiros voaram 3,6 milhões de milhas, em comparação com 75.000 milhas a bordo do Friendship 7.

Pouco antes de concorrer à indicação presidencial democrata de 1984, uma nova geração foi apresentada ao astronauta Glenn com a adaptação cinematográfica do livro de Tom Wolfe & # 8217s & # 8220The Right Stuff. & # 8221 Ele foi retratado como a flecha reta final em meio a um grupo de astronautas festeiros.

Glenn disse em 2011: & # 8220Eu não acho que nenhum de nós se importou com o filme & # 8216The Right Stuff & # 8217 Eu sei que não & # 8217t. & # 8221

Glenn não foi capaz de capitalizar com a publicidade, porém, e sua campanha mal organizada durou pouco. Ele desistiu da disputa com sua campanha de $ 2,5 milhões no vermelho - uma dívida que perdurou mesmo depois que ele se aposentou do Senado em 1999.

Mais tarde, ele brincou que, exceto por se endividar, humilhar sua família e ganhar 16 libras, concorrer à presidência foi uma boa experiência.

Glenn geralmente evitou campanhas depois disso, dizendo que não queria misturar política com seu segundo voo espacial. Ele não participou da corrida ao Senado para sucedê-lo - ele estava a centenas de quilômetros acima da Terra no dia da eleição - e quase não se mexeu na corrida presidencial de 2000.

Ele concorreu pela primeira vez ao Senado em 1964, mas deixou a corrida quando sofreu uma concussão após escorregar no banheiro e bater com a cabeça na banheira.

Ele tentou novamente em 1970, mas foi derrotado nas primárias por Howard Metzenbaum, que mais tarde perdeu a eleição geral para Robert Taft Jr. Foi o início de um relacionamento complexo com Metzenbaum, a quem ele mais tarde ingressou no Senado.

Nos quatro anos seguintes, Glenn dedicou sua atenção aos negócios e investimentos que o tornaram um multimilionário. Ele se juntou ao conselho da Royal Crown Cola após a campanha abortada de 1964, e foi presidente da Royal Crown International de 1967 a 1969. No início dos anos 1970, ele permaneceu na Royal Crown e investiu em uma rede de Holiday Inns.

Em 1974, Glenn concorreu contra Metzenbaum no que se tornou uma amarga primária e venceu a eleição. Ele finalmente fez as pazes com Metzenbaum, que ganhou a eleição para o Senado em 1976.

Glenn estabeleceu um recorde em 1980 ao vencer a reeleição com uma margem de votos de 1,6 milhão.

Ele se tornou um especialista em armamento nuclear e foi o defensor mais obstinado da não proliferação do Senado. Ele foi o principal defensor do bombardeiro B-1 quando muitos no Congresso duvidaram de sua necessidade. Como presidente do Comitê de Assuntos Governamentais, ele investigou o desperdício e a fraude na burocracia federal.

Glenn disse que o ponto mais baixo de sua vida foi 1990, quando ele e quatro outros senadores foram investigados por suas conexões com Charles Keating, o notório financista que acabou cumprindo pena de prisão por seu papel nas economias caras e na quebra de empréstimos dos anos 1980. O Comitê de Ética do Senado inocentou Glenn de irregularidades graves, mas disse que ele & # 8220 exerceu um julgamento inadequado. & # 8221

O episódio foi o único escândalo em sua longa carreira pública e não diminuiu sua popularidade em Ohio.

Glenn brincou que o único astronauta de que tinha inveja era seu colega de Ohio: Neil Armstrong, o primeiro homem a andar na lua.

& # 8220Eu & # 8217tive muita sorte de ter muitas experiências excelentes em minha vida e estou & # 8217m grato por elas & # 8221 ele disse em 2012.

Em 1943, Glenn se casou com sua namorada de infância, Anna Margaret Castor. Eles se conheceram quando eram crianças, e quando ela teve caxumba na adolescência, ele foi até a casa dela, abriu um buraco na tela da janela do quarto e lhe passou um rádio para lhe fazer companhia, contou um amigo.

& # 8220Não me lembro da primeira vez que disse a Annie que a amava, ou da primeira vez que ela me disse, & # 8221 Glenn escreveria em suas memórias. & # 8220Era apenas algo que ambos sabíamos. & # 8221 Ele comprou para ela um anel de noivado de diamante em 1942 por US $ 125. Ele nunca foi substituído.

Eles tiveram dois filhos, Carolyn e John David.

Ele e sua esposa, Annie, dividiram seus últimos anos entre Washington e Columbus. Ambos atuaram como curadores em sua alma mater, Muskingum College. Glenn passou um tempo promovendo a John Glenn School of Public Affairs na Ohio State University, que também abriga um arquivo de seus papéis e fotografias particulares.


Sobre Muskingum County

Em 7 de janeiro de 1804, o governo de Ohio autorizou a criação do Condado de Muskingum. O nome do condado veio de uma palavra indiana para "perto do rio". O rio Muskingum atravessa o condado. Localizado em Zane's Trace, o condado cresceu rapidamente. Em 1810, Zanesville, a sede do condado, tornou-se a capital de Ohio, substituindo Chillicothe. A principal razão para essa mudança foi uma tentativa dos republicanos democratas em Ohio de solidificar seu controle sobre o leste de Ohio. A capital permaneceu em Zanesville por apenas dois anos, retornando a Chillicothe em 1812, antes de se mudar definitivamente para Columbus em 1816.

O condado de Muskingum está localizado no leste de Ohio. É predominantemente rural, com menos de um por cento dos 665 milhas quadradas do condado consistindo em áreas urbanas. Com uma população de 25.586 pessoas, Zanesville era a maior comunidade do condado em 2000. A próxima maior área urbana, Falls Township, tinha apenas 8.585 residentes naquele mesmo ano. O condado de Muskingum experimentou um ligeiro aumento na população entre 1990 e 2010, elevando o número total de residentes para 84.884 pessoas. O condado de Muskingum parece permanecer estável em população. O condado tem em média 129 pessoas por quilômetro quadrado.

Os maiores empregadores no Condado de Muskingum são estabelecimentos de varejo, com as empresas de manufatura em segundo lugar. A indústria mais importante do condado durante a segunda metade do século XIX foi a fabricação de cerâmica artística. Samuel A. Weller se tornou o fabricante mais importante em 1890, quando iniciou a produção em Zanesville. A maioria de seus primeiros produtos incluía itens simples como vasos de flores, cuspideiras e talheres. Em 1905, mais de quinhentos trabalhadores encontraram emprego na fábrica de Weller. Esses trabalhadores produziam três vagões cheios de cerâmica todos os dias, tornando Weller o maior fabricante de cerâmica do mundo na década de 1910. A fabricação de cerâmica continua sendo um componente vital da economia do Condado de Muskingum hoje. Em 2003, muitos dos residentes de Zanesville encontraram emprego em vários estabelecimentos de cerâmica, incluindo Fioriware Art Pottery, Zanesville Pottery and China, Incorporated, e Robinson Ransbottom Pottery nas proximidades de Roseville. Outros negócios também prosperam no condado, como a Volvo Trucks e a Custom Vans of Zanesville. O condado também desfruta de uma indústria turística em expansão, devido aos fabricantes de cerâmica, bem como à Longaberger Company, que produz cestas nas proximidades de Frazeysburg. Pessoas em todo o mundo colecionam cestas Longaberger.

Entre os residentes mais proeminentes do condado de Muskingum estava o astronauta e senador dos Estados Unidos John Glenn. Glenn cresceu em New Concord, Ohio, e frequentou o Muskingum College. O autor Zane Gray também morava no condado.


Vídeo inspirador mostra capitão do exército tropeçando para acabar com a marcha das 12 milhas

A capitã Sarah Cudd é mostrada tropeçando para terminar a jornada em menos de três horas.

Soldados inspiram o capitão que estava & # x275 pés de falha & # x27

& # 151 - A capitã do Exército mostrado em um vídeo viral de sua marcha-teste de 12 milhas disse que ela estava "a um metro e meio do fracasso" quando seus colegas soldados a aplaudiram.

"Quando eu caí pela segunda vez e pude olhar para cima e ver a linha de chegada, foi realmente uma boa motivação para me levantar", disse a capitã Sarah Cudd, 29, à ABC News.

O vídeo mostra Cudd, do Comando de Saúde Pública do Exército dos EUA, um dos 46 candidatos que ganhou seu distintivo de especialista em medicina de campo depois de passar por testes rigorosos para profissionais médicos do Exército. O campo inicial tinha 239 candidatos, disse uma porta-voz do Comando de Saúde Pública à ABC News.

Quase 1,3 milhão de pessoas viram o vídeo que foi compartilhado no Facebook em 28 de abril.

O vídeo foi feito em 27 de abril em Fort Dix, em Nova Jersey, de acordo com a descrição escrita pelo colega soldado capitão Lloyd Mason. Como parte do último teste para ganhar o distintivo, os candidatos tiveram que completar a jornada de 12 milhas em três horas carregando uma mochila de 35 libras e uma arma de 5 libras.

Cudd of Tomball, Texas, que está no Exército há cinco anos, explicou à ABC News que no último minuto da marcha ela estava "superexaída e tendo problemas para se endireitar".

"Eu estava pensando sobre os 10 dias de treinamento que passei e como todos nós trabalhamos duro para chegar aqui e pensando em ir para casa ver meu marido", disse Cudd. "Isso combinado com todo o incentivo que estava recebendo de meus amigos e quadros foi o que me fez subir e passar da linha de chegada."

Depois de tropeçar a poucos metros da linha de chegada, seus colegas a incentivaram até que ela concluísse o teste em duas horas e 47 minutos. Dos 46 que conquistaram o distintivo naquele dia, eram 14 mulheres.

"Alívio foi a única coisa que senti depois que terminei", disse ela. "Alívio e gratidão a todos aqueles que me apoiaram e desejaram que eu chegasse à linha de chegada."

Agora, Cudd trabalha na instalação de tratamento veterinário na Base da Força Aérea Wright-Patterson, a leste de Dayton, Ohio, de acordo com a porta-voz do Comando de Saúde Pública.

Cudd disse que ficou surpresa com a atenção viral que o vídeo recebeu.

"Para mim, no final da marcha ruck, eu estava a cerca de um metro e meio do fracasso e estava grato por passar da linha de chegada e ganhar o distintivo", disse Cudd. “Para todos os outros, a marcha foi um grande sucesso e uma inspiração para muitos.

“Estou honrado e francamente humilde por ser capaz de inspirar outras pessoas e orgulhoso de servir ao meu país com o melhor de minha capacidade."


Os animais selvagens mais comumente vistos incluem coiotes, corvos, roadrunners, esquilos e lagartos. Se você tiver sorte, poderá ver ovelhas selvagens nas montanhas. Se você visitar Salt Creek na primavera, poderá ver pupfish. Para obter uma lista completa de mamíferos, pássaros, répteis, anfíbios e peixes, acesse nossa página Animais.

Sim, mas se você for razoavelmente cuidadoso, eles não devem ser um problema. Animais potencialmente perigosos incluem cascavéis, escorpiões, aranhas viúvas negras, abelhas, vespas, coiotes e leões da montanha. Para evitar se machucar, evite todo contato com animais selvagens. Não alimente coiotes. Sempre olhe primeiro antes de colocar as mãos ou os pés em qualquer lugar.


Glenn cruza os EUA em 3 horas - História

John H. Glenn Jr., um verdadeiro herói americano, cresceu em New Concord, Ohio, uma pequena cidade religiosa. Filho de um veterano da Primeira Guerra Mundial, sua infância lembra uma pintura de Norman Rockwell: desfiles do Dia da Decoração, crianças brincando em campos e bosques, sundaes de calda quente na leiteria local e se casando com a vizinha.
Ele se matriculou no Programa de Cadete da Aviação Naval em 1942 e serviu no VMO-155 dos fuzileiros navais durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, voando em 59 missões de combate em Corsairs F4U sobre os Marshalls e ganhando duas distintas cruzes voadores. Glenn e os aviadores dos fuzileiros navais do VMO-155 chegaram a Majuro, nos Marshalls, em julho de 1944, depois que os fortes combates naquela área haviam diminuído. Enquanto os americanos capturaram os grandes atóis estratégicos de Majuro, Kwajalein, Roi-Namur, Eniwetok e Namu. Mas forças japonesas isoladas resistiram em Wotje, Maloelap, Mili e Jaluit.

Combate da Segunda Guerra Mundial nos Marshalls
O trabalho do VMO-155 era manter as forças japonesas suprimidas, para impedi-los de encenar qualquer contra-ataque por ar ou água. A primeira missão de combate de Glenn aconteceu alguns dias depois que ele pousou, era de supressão antiaérea. Voe com alguns Corsairs sobre Maloelap e ataque qualquer instalação antiaérea que se abriu. Não exatamente glamoroso, mas muito real. Nessa primeira missão, Monty Goodman, um aviador esperto do centro da Pensilvânia e um dos bons amigos de Glenn, não conseguiu voltar ao ponto de encontro. Eles realizavam uma ou duas missões por dia, ou supressão antiaérea ou bombardeio de mergulho - o Corsair era poderoso o suficiente para servir como um bombardeiro de mergulho, carregado com três bombas de mil libras. Como os Corsairs não tinham freios de mergulho adequados (grandes flaps perfurados que foram estendidos para retardar o mergulho), eles soltaram o trem de pouso e reduziram a velocidade dos caças grandes o suficiente. Glenn adorava voar de combate, embora não fosse um combate ar-ar, era "voar com um propósito" e as corridas de bombardeio "eram um teste de habilidade, coragem, preparação e concentração que eu adorei."

Ele voou de Majuro por quatro meses, incluindo um par de missões de bombardeio de longa distância contra Nauru, que ainda estava produzindo e entregando fosfato para o esforço de guerra japonês, mesmo no final de 1944. Em novembro, o esquadrão de Glenn mudou-se para Kwajalein, onde eles continuou a atacar as forças japonesas nos Marshalls. Agora eles tinham uma nova arma, o napalm, que só se tornaria infame 25 anos depois no Vietnã. Era uma arma horrível, e eles a usaram em todos os lugares onde a inteligência pensava que havia muitas pessoas. Era terrível pensar como seria no chão no meio daquelas chamas. . Isso te fez pensar. Então, a psicologia da guerra assumiu o controle. Estávamos lutando em uma guerra que não havíamos começado, pela sobrevivência de nosso país, nossas famílias, nossa herança de liberdade. & Quot

Ele deixou o Marshalls no início de 1945 e voltou para os Estados Unidos. Nos últimos meses da guerra, ele esteve em Pax River, testando aviões como o F8F Bearcat e o Ryan Fireball FR-1. Promovido a capitão no final da guerra, ele decidiu fazer carreira como fuzileiro naval.

Depois da guerra, ele foi membro do Esquadrão de Caças 218 na patrulha do Norte da China e tinha serviço em Guam. Originalmente, a missão na China foi anunciada como uma turnê de três meses, mas se arrastou por dois anos. De junho de 1948 a dezembro de 1950, Glenn foi instrutor de treinamento de vôo avançado em Corpus Christi, Texas. Ele então frequentou o treinamento de guerra anfíbia em Quantico, Virgínia. Embora não seja do interesse de Glenn, o curso Amphibious Warfare era obrigatório para todos os oficiais da Marinha. Em seguida, ele desenhou uma designação de pessoal de terra e esgotou a burocracia com pedidos de transferência para designação de esquadrão voador na Coréia.
Coréia
Depois de verificar os Panteras F9F que os fuzileiros navais estavam usando na Coréia, Glenn voou para a Coréia em fevereiro de 1953, designado para a Primeira Ala Aérea de Fuzileiros Navais, VMF-311, base aérea K-3 em P'ohang. Duas coisas imediatamente impressionaram Glenn sobre a Coreia: o frio e o & quotkimchi & quot, um alimento básico coreano que consiste em repolho fermentado, cebola, rabanete e alho. Na verdade, ele se solidificou durante a fermentação, e & quot se você estivesse a favor do vento quando alguém abriu o jarro de kimchi, o cheiro não era algo que você esqueceria. & Quot (Você já ouviu a expressão & quotVocê estará no kimchi profundo! & Quot?). É isso.)
P'ohang estava a cerca de 180 milhas da frente. Armados com três mil libras de bombas e HVARS (High Velocity Aircraft Rockets) de cinco polegadas, os F9F Panthers de construção pesada eram adequados para missões de ataque ao solo. Eles voavam constantemente, fornecendo apoio próximo aos fuzileiros navais na frente. O bom amigo de Glenn, Tom Miller, e outros pilotos experientes o aconselharam a evitar "armadilhas de flak". Eles tinham ordens contra fazer uma segunda corrida contra um alvo. Mas, como todos nós, às vezes Glenn tinha que aprender da maneira mais difícil. Um dia voando sobre Sinanju, Glenn avistou uma posição de canhão antiaéreo norte-coreano. Ele notou sua posição e circulou de volta, disparando contra ele com os quatro canhões de 20 mm do F9F. Mas sua Pantera foi atingida no processo e ele mal conseguia manter o nível do avião, puxando o manche constantemente para mantê-lo nivelado. Ele voltou ao K-3 para encontrar um & quothole na cauda do Panther que era grande o suficiente para passar minha cabeça e ombros. Havia outros 250 buracos menores de estilhaços em volta do grande. Achamos que era uma cápsula de 37 milímetros que me atingiu, uma maior teria estourado a cauda. Tripulações substituíram a cauda e o Panther voou como novo. . Essa foi a última vez que fiz uma corrida scond. & Quot Uma semana depois, ele foi atingido novamente, desta vez, um projétil antiaéreo ainda maior havia explodido o tanque de napalm de sua asa, e enquanto ele pousou em segurança, o avião estava torrado.

Um dos outros pilotos do VMF-311 foi o grande rebatedor do Boston Red Sox, Ted Williams. Ted voou na Segunda Guerra Mundial e foi convocado novamente na Coréia. Ele era um grande jogador de bola e um excelente piloto. Apenas para pegar sua cabra, os outros pilotos começaram a chamá-lo de & quotBush & quot, como em & quotBush League. & Quot. Ted foi atingido em uma de suas primeiras missões e teve que fazer um pouso de emergência no K-16 em Seul. Era política do USMC emparelhar reservistas e aviadores de carreira, e Willims freqüentemente voava nas asas de Glenn. Uma vez, os HVARs de Ted não dispararam corretamente e, quando o fizeram, atingiram uma área que o mapa mostrava como ocupada por tropas da ONU. Preocupados tanto com as possíveis baixas amistosas quanto com as consequentes cortes marciais, os dois pilotos ficaram imensamente aliviados ao descobrir que as linhas haviam se movido e que os foguetes haviam atingido as posições comunistas.

Glenn resumiu essa parte de suas experiências na Guerra da Coréia em John Glenn: A Memoir:

Eu gostava do tipo de combate ar-solo que estávamos fazendo. Voar em apoio às tropas terrestres foi o que me atraiu aos fuzileiros navais quando ouvi falar de Guadalcanal lá em Corpus Christi. Os fuzileiros navais se olham como uma equipe.
Mas também esperava um combate ar-ar. Essa foi a última palavra em voo de caça, testando-se contra outro piloto no ar. Desde os dias do Lafayette Escadrille durante a Primeira Guerra Mundial, os pilotos viram o combate ar-ar como o teste final não apenas de suas máquinas, mas de sua própria determinação pessoal e habilidades de vôo. Eu não fui exceção. Você acredita que é o melhor no ar. If you do, you're not cocky, you're combat-ready. If you don't, you'd better find another line of work.

After flying 63 missions in a Marine Corps F9F Panther from airbase K-3 at Pohong Dong (or P'ohang), he applied to fly F-86 interceptors with the Air Force on an exchange program. He was assigned to the 25th FIS (Fighter Interceptor Squadron) at K-13, Suwon, where the 51st FIW was headquartered. The CO of the 25th FIS was Major. John Giraudo, who had been shot down over Germany in WWII and spent time as a POW. Maj. Giraudo completed Glenn's check-out in the F-86.
They patrolled the area just south of the Yalu, the so-called "Mig Alley," in long figure eights, always turning towards the north to keep from being surprised. The F-86 Sabres and the MiGs were evenly matched. Both had 6,000-pound thrust jet engines, and could go supersonic in a dive. The MiG was smaller, and it could climb higher and faster. The Sabre was faster in level flight and in a dive, had a greater range, and could turn tighter in a fast dive. The Sabre carried six 50-caliber machine guns, while the Mig relied on a single 37-mm and two 23-mm cannon.
Unlike the Marines, the Air Force pilots tended to fly the same plane day after day. It became "their" plane, and nose art and other personal decorations flourished. Not long after Glenn began flying his F-86F-30-NA Sabre #52-4584, the fuselage sported in large script: LYN ANNIE DAVE, for his wife and two kids. After enough of his moaning about the absence of MiGs, he went out to the flight line one morning to find a big red M painted on, with letters trailing off it, so it read:

Soon the USAF Sabres were ordered to fly ground attack missions if they were returning from unsuccessful MiG-hunting with a full load of munitions. On such a raid over Sinanju, Glenn's CO, Lt. Col. Giraudo was lost. But with Giraudo's loss, Glenn began leading two- and four- plane flights. Now he would be 'the shooter'. On July 12, 1953, he was flying with 1st Lt. Sam Young on his wing, he spotted a MiG and chased it 40 miles into Manchuria. The rules of engagement permitted the UN fliers to cross the Yalu when "in hot pursuit." Abruptly the MiG slowed to land, and Glenn opened up with his six .50s. The bullets lit up the fuselage and wing, sending up bright sparks. Flames burst out and as the MiG hit the ground, it exploded. Glenn flew low enough to see the MiG spread out over 100 yards. He rendezvoused with Young, and flew back to K-3 for an impromptu celebration.

A few days later, he got the chance to mix it up with some more MiGs when his flight of four F-86s was bounced by 16 MiGs. Soon four other Sabres joined the fray, and a WWI-style dogfight ensued, only the planes were flying at 600 MPH instead of 100 MPH. That meant a closing rate of 1200 MPH! Glenn's wingman on this day, Jerry Parker, scored some hits, but was soon hit himself. He broke off to escort Parker back to K-13. Six MiGs came after them, and Glenn's only choice was to "light up the nose," fire at them from long range, in the hope they would break off their attack. They did, and then Glenn went after them in earnest, catching up to the tail-ender, and flaming it. "The MiGs' tactics were so poor I could only imagine it was a training flight, or they were low on fuel, but we were unbelievably lucky."

Three days later, on July 22, he downed his third MiG, his last of the war. There were a few more days of bad weather, then the armistice was declared. He had flown 27 Sabre missions with the USAF 51st FIW, and earned another DFC and 8 Air Medals in Korea.

Test Pilot, Astronaut, U.S. Senator
After the Korean War, he entered the Navy's prestigious Patuxent River Test Pilot School (universally known in the military flying community as "Pax River"). He rose to the rank of Major in the Marine Corps after three years in test flight. In 1957, Glenn became a minor celebrity when he flew the first supersonic, trans-continental flight, a project that he devised and managed himself. Flying a Vought F8U "Crusader," he developed the plan to fly from Los Angeles to New York at an average speed above Mach 1, which required three aerial refuelings from flying tankers. He completed the flight in 3 hours and 23 minutes. Later he appeared on a TV game show with with child star Eddie Hodges.

In 1958, he was selected as one of the original seven Mercury astronauts. As portrayed in Tom Wolfe's The Right Stuff, he was the clean-cut, go-getter of the group. While he was not chosen to fly either of the first two flights, as it worked out, his flight, the third in the Mercury program, was the choice mission. The NASA Mercury-6 mission web page has more details. It carried him far beyond its three orbits and five hours to global fame: a Broadway ticker tape parade, a meeting with President Kennedy, and an eventual career in politics as U.S. Senator for Ohio. I loved reading about his famous speech -- "Yes, I've held a job, Howard." -- when his opponent, Howard Metzenbaum, a wealthy, self-made millionaire, accused Glenn, as a lifetime "government employee" of never having held a job. In an inspired turn, an incensed Glenn turned it around, and used his response to trumpet his military service and to proclaim the dignity, honor, and sacrifice of military service. He won that election.

He ran for President in 1984 (just after the positive glow of the movie release of The Right Stuff), but his campaign never "took off." He is the oldest person to go into space and also holds the record for longest time between space flights, as he flew the Space Shuttle in 1998, thirty-six years after the flight of the Mercury capsule Friendship-7.


Sources and Recommended Books:

Robert F. Dorr, Korean War Aces, Osprey Aircraft of the Aces, 1995


John Glenn, John Glenn: A Memoir, Bantam Books, 1999
His autobiography, written after his Space Shuttle flight. I enjoyed it thoroughly, and used it as a primary source for much of this article. One aspect of the book that I didn't emphasize enough in this short article is Glenn's absolute and total devotion to his wife Annie. He mentions her on almost every page. Even when he was in the Marshalls in WWII, he wrote her every day. Wonderful.

Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff - written in the late 70's, inspiring and humorous tale of fighter jocks, test pilots, and the Mercury astronauts


Woodrow Wilson’s First Administration

At the age of 56, Woodrow Wilson was sworn into office in March 1913. He was the last American president to travel to his inauguration ceremony in a horse-drawn carriage. Once in the White House, Wilson achieved significant progressive reform. Congress passed the Underwood-Simmons Act, which reduced the tariff on imports and imposed a new federal income tax. It also passed legislation establishing the Federal Reserve (which provides a system for regulating the nation’s banks, credit and money supply) and the Federal Trade Commission (which investigates and prohibits unfair business practices). Other accomplishments included child labor laws, an eight-hour day for railroad workers and government loans to farmers. Additionally, Wilson nominated the first Jewish person to the U.S. Supreme Court, Louis Brandeis (1856-1941), who was confirmed by the Senate in 1916.

Wilson&aposs progressive agenda did not apply to all Americans, however. During his first term, he oversaw the re-segregation of many branches of the federal work force,  including the Treasury, the Post Office, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Navy, the Interior, the Marine Hospital, the War Department and the Government Printing Office. The action reversed hard-fought economic progress made by Black Americans since Reconstruction.

When World War I broke out in Europe in the summer of 1914, Wilson was determined to keep the United States out of the conflict. On May 7, 1915, a German submarine torpedoed and sank the British ocean liner Lusitania, killing more than 1,100 people (including 128 Americans). Wilson continued to maintain U.S. neutrality but warned Germany that any future sinkings would be viewed by America as �liberately unfriendly.”

In 1916, Wilson and Vice President Marshall were re-nominated by the Democrats. The Republicans chose Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948) as their presidential candidate and Charles Fairbanks (1852-1918), the U.S. vice president under Theodore Roosevelt, as his running mate. Wilson, who campaigned on the slogan “He kept us out of war,” won with a narrow electoral margin of 277-254 and a little more than 49 percent of the popular vote.


Glenn Crosses US in 3 Hours - History

Ask Americans why Central American immigrants are arriving at the southern U.S. border in ever-larger numbers, and some will say it&rsquos lax border enforcement, disregard for the law and the temptations of U.S. jobs and generous welfare benefits.

Others, including the Biden administration and experts in the region, will point to what they call "root causes" of migration: entrenched corruption, grinding poverty, economic stagnation and fear of violence in the home countries that all but compel people to seek relief in the U.S.

It&rsquos these conditions, they say, that explain why moms, dads, teens and kids would take the risks they do, leaving behind their families and traditions, embarking on a journey that typically requires walking nights and days through the desert without water, swimming against strong river currents without a life vest, or hiding in the back of a tightly packed tractor-trailer for hours without enough air to breathe.

The root causes get little attention in the swirl of misinformation that accompanies each new cycle of immigration. But they are real and pervasive, these experts say. And for more and more people, there&rsquos no hope left that the conditions will ever change.

Extreme poverty and hunger intensify their despair.

"In El Salvador, in general, people live day-to-day in survival mode, hoping you don&rsquot get killed, hoping you at least have some beans to feed your family," Eduardo Escobar, the executive director of Acción Ciudadana in El Salvador, an anti-corruption group, told PolitiFact.

"People feel stuck," Escobar said. "Historically, they haven&rsquot felt heard or attended to by the government."

President Joe Biden has set a goal to invest $4 billion over four years in Central America to address the reasons why people feel a need to come to the United States in the first place. The effort would focus on Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, the so-called Northern Triangle countries, which have experienced significant emigration in recent years.

Biden&rsquos funding proposals face an uncertain fate in Congress, but in the meantime, he has tapped Vice President Kamala Harris to lead U.S. efforts to help improve conditions in the Northern Triangle, a task Biden himself had taken on when he was vice president.

Harris makes her first international trip as vice president this week, to Mexico and Guatemala.

Given the administration&rsquos attention to addressing the root causes of emigration from Central America, and the prospect of new funding, PolitiFact took a look at what the prevailing conditions are in the region and how they end up driving people out.

Migrants are reluctant to tell their stories. But people in Central America who lead anti-corruption efforts and U.S.-based experts who study migration and Central America describe countries where crisis conditions caused by wars, displacement, scarcity, a legacy of corporate colonialism and other social ills have hampered daily life to the point of desperation.

The poorest of the poor in all three countries don&rsquot always get a chance to get out. The people who are able to leave typically are those who have gathered enough money to pay a smuggler to get them to U.S. soil, or as close as possible. Commonly, it&rsquos people who have been able to sell any land or other property they own, who have managed to save money sent over the years by relatives in the U.S., or who have borrowed enough money from family and friends, with a pledge to start repayment as soon as they land a job in the U.S.

The smuggling fee can vary based on several factors, including the starting point and the smugglers&rsquo routes and tactics. Some people are charged as much as $15,000. Some smugglers allow a "pay as you go" plan, collecting installments as they get people to certain points in their journey. About half of Guatemala&rsquos population is indigeneous people, historically marginalized and discriminated against by their own government. Seeing no chance of betterment, they are among the mostly likely to risk leaving.

People who leave their countries are under no illusion that they will live in luxury in the United States, said Manfredo Marroquín, executive director of Acción Ciudadana in Guatemala, a civil society organization working to strengthen democracy in Guatemala. Marroquín, who was scheduled to meet Harris on her trip, said Guatemalans know they will be in a country where people speak a different language and where they will likely need to work long hours of manual labor for little pay. But they hope they will earn enough to at least get some things they may never have in their own country: a TV, a stove, a Sunday off.

"What every normal family wishes for," Marroquín said.

Another set of people leaving Guatemala, Marroquín said, are families who are somewhat well-off and can travel by plane to the United States. A direct flight from Guatemala City to Miami is just over two hours. Those families aren&rsquot necessarily destitute, but they don&rsquot want their children growing up surrounded by violence or without a well-paying job after getting a college degree. "They leave with visas," Marroquín said. "But they also don&rsquot come back."

From the 1980s to the 2000s, when annual southern border apprehensions often exceeded 1 million a year, Border Patrol agents mostly encountered men from Mexico who were coming looking for jobs and trying to avoid detection from border authorities. That changed in the early and mid-2010s, when the U.S. started seeing a historic increase in the numbers of Central American families and unaccompanied children arriving, looking for refuge from the threats of criminal gangs. These children and families sought out Border Patrol agents, so they could ask for asylum protection.

From fiscal years 2005 through 2015, Customs and Border Protection more than tripled the total miles of primary border fencing to stop people from entering the U.S. on foot and in vehicles between official ports of entry. The Trump administration added about 50 miles of that primary fencing.

In the 1990s, people used to cross the Mexico-U.S. border relatively freely and easily, experts said. So a Central American or Mexican parent who went to the U.S. to work might have been able to return to their country of origin more often to visit their children. Once more barriers went up, that back-and-forth happened less frequently. Parents stayed in the U.S., and children were left behind with a relative in their home country.

These days, many of the teens arriving alone at the border are coming to reunite with their parents, whom they haven&rsquot seen in years. The increased barriers aren&rsquot deterring migration attempts.

Marroquín said that when former President Donald Trump was in office promoting a border wall, smugglers would urge people to cross, before the wall went up and enforcement stiffened.

"Trump made smuggling fees go up," Marroquín said. "But he didn&rsquot stop people from going."

Now that Biden is in office, smugglers have a different sales pitch. They tell people that now laws are more relaxed.

Smugglers "will always find arguments to give people hope," Marroquín said.

Central America is an isthmus between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. Its location leaves its people vulnerable to destruction and displacement from powerful hurricanes and earthquakes, compounding problems in already impoverished nations.

Farmers are also at the mercy of extended droughts when they lose their crops they also lose their ability to feed their families and make a living.

Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador are relatively small and poor countries that have a hard time competing individually in the world economy. Economic development policies instituted throughout the years have pushed the countries to rely heavily on one or two agricultural products, such as coffee and bananas.

That has had "serious consequences" for the kinds of jobs available, said Cecilia Menjívar, a professor and Dorothy L. Meier Social Equities Chair at University of California, Los Angeles.

U.S. businesses with connections in Congress have set up shop in Central America, displacing farmers from their land and exploiting them for labor, Abrego said. At times when leaders in Central American countries have wanted agrarian reforms, U.S. businesses enlisted Washington to help trample those efforts, sometimes with the U.S. supporting regime changes, she said.

Most of the jobs that have become available to people are unstable, low-paying field jobs without benefits or workers&rsquo rights protections, Menjívar said.

It&rsquos "just pure, raw, human labor devoid of any rights, and that is not a good way to develop a good economic infrastructure," Menjívar said. "You can see how the roots of the current poverty, how these extreme conditions did not come out of the blue."

The "elite" in the region know they are protected as long as they align with U.S. and other foreign interests, Abrego said, so they&rsquove allowed foreign businesses to operate with few or no taxes and without fair labor laws.

"They have no interest in changing that," she said.

People who have some modicum of economic opportunity aren&rsquot safe from trouble.

Criminal gangs are prevalent throughout poor neighborhoods in Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. But they also extort and victimize anyone who appears to be slightly better off than others around them.

Nurses, teachers, bus and taxi drivers, people with a corner food stand or a small neighborhood produce store are sure targets. People who can&rsquot afford to pay for private security risk their lives just to get to and from work, experts said.

Also in danger are people who have relatives in the United States and who occasionally receive money to pay for schooling, food and other necessities. If a house in a neighborhood gets a fresh coat of paint or any other sign of improvement, gang members see that as an opportunity.

"They are heavy into extortion. If you challenge them, they get really vicious real fast," said Harry E. Vanden, a professor emeritus at the University of South Florida, whose expertise includes Latin American studies.

Some people are forced to pay gangs a fee just to avoid being attacked, leaving them with less money to feed their families. Those who fail to pay may end up raped, kidnapped, recruited or killed.

In response to an increase of Central Americans arriving at the southern border during the Obama administration, the U.S. tried to discourage Central Americans from migrating illegally to the United States, with local billboards and radio ads warning about the dangers they may face in their journey, like getting kidnapped, sexually assaulted or killed.

"People don&rsquot pay attention to those warnings," Marroquín said, "because they already live under that threat here daily."

Police have been mostly powerless against the gang threat. Generally, the officers are poorly trained, low-paid, and susceptible to corruption, experts said.

"If they get into it with the gangs, then gangs go after them," Vanden said.

The number of gang members in each country is difficult to pin down. Estimates vary widely. In Honduras alone, some estimates for 2016 ranged from about 6,000 to 25,000.

The major gangs threatening Central Americans &mdash the 18th Street gang, or M-18, and its rival Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13 &mdash started in the United States. They expanded to Central America after the U.S. in the 1990s imprisoned members and deported many who were in the country illegally.

The fact that all three countries were ravaged by civil conflicts in the 1980s should not be forgotten either, Menjívar said, "because that&rsquos the root of so much of the violence that we see there today."

"It&rsquos the same violence, just transformed into common crime, gang violence," she said.

In Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, domestic and other forms of violence, particularly against women and LGBTQ people, are also a serious problem.

"In theory, the laws to protect women from violence are there," Menjívar said. "In practice, they are completely empty of any teeth."

So many women see no other option than to leave their country.

"They have heard that things are better" in the U.S., Menjívar said. "That here at least you can call the police and the police will respond."

Corruption is a factor in people&rsquos decision to emigrate, Escobar said, "but you won&rsquot hear people here say, &lsquoI&rsquom leaving because of the corruption.&rsquo People will say, &lsquoI&rsquom leaving because there are no opportunities here. I&rsquom leaving because they&rsquore going to kill me. I&rsquom leaving because I have no job.&rsquo"

Nonetheless, systemic corruption lies at the root of those ills, strangling the economy and widening inequality.

Earlier this year, the U.S. Justice Department said that Tony Hernández, a former Honduran congressman and brother of the current president of Honduras, was sentenced to life in prison for cocaine importation, weapons violations, and making false statements. The U.S. has also linked the Honduran president, Juan Orlando Hernández, to drug trafficking. He has not been charged.

In El Salvador, former presidents have also faced corruption charges one of them died in 2016 while awaiting trial for allegedly embezzling donations from Taiwan destined for earthquake relief. In 2018, another former president pleaded guilty to money laundering and embezzlement of some $300 million.

In Guatemala, at least four former presidents have faced corruption charges as a result of investigations led by a United Nations-backed commission created in the late 2000s, the New York Times reported in 2018.

As an example of how broken things are in Guatemala, Marroquín cited legislators and mayors who win elections thanks to their reputation as effective smugglers.

"Everything is backward," Marroquín said. "They win because people see them as leaders, as people who get things done. They see them as good people who were able to get their aunt or uncle across the border, as people who saved them."

Escobar, who leads the anticorruption group in El Salvador, said that society has developed so heavily under corrupt practices that some types of "micro" corruption &mdash paying off a police officer at a traffic stop, say, or bribing a principal to get a child into school &mdash have become normalized, accepted as just the way things are in the country.

"The problem here is that the institutions don&rsquot work," Escobar said.

To effectively slow emigration, Biden&rsquos plan would first have to work its way through Congress, and then through the thicket of challenges in Central America.

People need stability, experts said. They need jobs, better salaries, better working conditions. More opportunities to start and grow businesses and to create wealth.

The Biden-backed Democratic immigration bill, the U.S. Citizenship Act, outlines a four-year initiative &mdash the U.S. Strategy for Engagement in Central America &mdash and calls for the collaboration of U.S. agencies, foreign governments and civil organizations that promote freedom of the press, human and labor rights.

Up to 50% of the money appropriated in each fiscal year could be used on Day 1 toward the initiative&rsquos goals. But the remaining 50% would be available only after the U.S. determines that the respective foreign governments have taken steps to address corruption, implemented policies and programs to reduce poverty and counter violence, among other measures.

The bill also directs the State and Treasury departments to secure financial and technical assistance from international donors to support the U.S. strategy. The proposal orders administration officials to create and push public information campaigns in Central America to discourage unauthorized migration and to provide accurate information about U.S. immigration laws and policies.

Rep. Norma Torres, D-Calif., co-chair of the Central America Caucus in the House of Representatives, told PolitiFact that fighting corruption and impunity in Central America is key in addressing the factors that push people to migrate. She said it's also important that any U.S. investment includes mechanisms for transparency and accountability, to ensure that funds go directly to the people who need it most, including people in isolated areas of the region.

"We will only reduce migration by creating opportunities for the people there," said Torres, who was born in Guatemala. "If they can see a future for themselves, if they can see improvements in their safety, curtailing of the drug cartels and the gangs, I think that migration will be a secondary issue."

Experts emphasized that the U.S. government needs to be wary of partnering with government offices and leaders who have a history of corruption. They suggest more involvement from local civil society organizations to empower and train people so they have better alternatives.

Escobar said it&rsquos also important to better educate societies in Central America about corruption and what they lose as a result of it.


John Glenn, the first American to orbit Earth, dies at 95

In this Feb. 20, 1962 photo made available by NASA, astronaut John Glenn pilots the 𠇏riendship 7” Mercury spacecraft during his historic flight as the first American to orbit the Earth. (NASA via AP)

John Glenn, who captured the nation’s attention in 1962 as the first American to orbit the Earth during a tense time when the United States sought supremacy over the Soviet Union in the space race, and who rocketed back into space 36 years later, becoming the oldest astronaut in history, died Dec. 8 at a hospital in Columbus, Ohio. Glenn, who in his post-NASA career served four terms as a U.S. senator from Ohio, was 95.

The death was confirmed by Hank Wilson, communications director at the John Glenn College of Public Affairs at Ohio State University. Glenn had a stroke after heart-valve replacement surgery in 2014, but the immediate cause was not announced.

Glenn was one of the seven original astronauts in NASA’s Mercury program, which was a conspicuous symbol of the country’s military and technological might at the height of the Cold War. He was not the first American in space – two of his fellow astronauts preceded him – but his three-orbit circumnavigation of the globe captured the imagination of his countrymen like few events before or since. Glenn was the last survivor of the Mercury Seven.

In an era when fear of encroaching Soviet influence reached from the White House to kindergarten classrooms, Glenn, in his silver astronaut suit, lifted the hopes of a nation on his shining shoulders. When he emerged smiling from his Friendship 7 capsule after returning from space, cheers echoed throughout the land.

“You had to have been alive at that time to comprehend the reaction of the nation, practically all of it,” author Tom Wolfe, who coined the phrase “the right stuff” to describe Glenn and the other Mercury astronauts, wrote in a 2009 essay. “John Glenn, in 1962, was the last true national hero America has ever had.”

After he was elected to the U.S. Senate from Ohio in 1974, Glenn served on Capitol Hill for 24 years and made a halfhearted run for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1984. When he was 77 and completing his fourth Senate term in 1998, he had one final flight of glory, returning to space as a crew member aboard the space shuttle Discovery.

As heroes go, the freckle-faced Glenn appeared unassuming and seemed to embody the middle-American values of modesty, steadiness and hard work.

He had climbed the ranks of the Marine Corps, becoming a full colonel, by accepting the most dangerous assignments and never flinching under pressure. He flew 149 combat missions in two wars and was a test pilot in the 1950s, when faster-than-sound airplanes often veered out of control and crashed in smoking heaps.

When he joined the astronaut corps in 1959, no one knew whether a human being could survive the ordeals of space travel. Yet for all the risks he faced, Glenn was a man of careful preparation and quiet responsibility.

Highest rank

On Oct. 4, 1957, the Soviet Union made a bold advance on the Cold War chessboard by launching Sputnik, the first man-made satellite to orbit Earth. In response, the U.S. government formed NASA in 1958 amid widespread fear that the country was falling behind the Soviets in technology and military strength.

Of the seven original astronauts of the Mercury program – the others were M. Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper Jr., Virgil I. “Gus” Grissom, Walter M. “Wally” Schirra Jr., Alan B. Shepard Jr. and Donald K. �ke” Slayton – Glenn was the oldest and the lone Marine. A lieutenant colonel at the time, he also had the highest rank and the most combat experience.

He did not drink, smoke or swear and maintained a disciplined, straight-arrow manner while training in Cocoa Beach, Florida, near NASA’s space center at Cape Canaveral. Comfortable in front of cameras – which followed the astronauts everywhere after they signed a $500,000 deal with Life magazine for a series of exclusive stories – Glenn was in many ways the public face of NASA.

Privately, however, there was friction among the “Magnificent Seven,” as the Mercury astronauts were dubbed in the news media. Concerned that some of his colleagues’ dalliances with women could lead to bad publicity and jeopardize the manned space program, Glenn confronted his fellow astronauts, admonishing them to avoid any semblance of wrongdoing.

“There was no doubt whatsoever that Glenn meant every word of it,” Wolfe wrote in his 1979 book, “The Right Stuff.” “When he got his back up, he was formidable. He was not to be trifled with.”

Not all of the astronauts were pleased with Glenn’s righteousness, however, and Shepard told him to mind his own business.

“His moralizing led to colorful and heated exchanges among the pilots, and it wasn’t pleasant banter,” Shepard and Slayton wrote in their 1995 book, “Moon Shot.”

When the astronauts voted among themselves to confer the honor of being the first American in space, they chose Shepard.

On May 5, 1961, Shepard had a 15-minute suborbital space flight, followed two months later by Grissom on a similar mission. But two Soviet cosmonauts had already circled the Earth by August 1961.

Glenn’s turn came on Feb. 20, 1962. After 11 delays because of bad weather or faulty equipment, he sat in his tiny space capsule, the Friendship 7, atop an MA-6 rocket that had failed in 40 percent of its test flights.

After liftoff at 9:47 a.m., backup pilot Carpenter said on national television, “Godspeed, John Glenn.”

The moment was shared by practically the entire nation, as a television audience of 135 million – the largest up to that time – witnessed the launch.

The flight plan called for seven orbits, but after the first, the capsule began to wobble. Glenn overrode the automatic navigation system and piloted Friendship 7 with manual controls for two more orbits, reaching a height of 162 miles above the Earth’s surface.

Midway through the flight, a warning light indicated that the heat shield, which would protect the capsule during its reentry into Earth’s atmosphere, may have come loose. Without a heat shield, it was possible that Glenn could burn up inside the capsule as it raced back from space.

As Friendship 7 was descending, all radio contact was lost. Shepard, acting as �psule communicator” from Cape Canaveral, tried to reach Glenn in his spacecraft, saying, “How do you read? Over.”

After about 4 minutes and 20 seconds of silence, Glenn could finally be heard: “Loud and clear. How me?”

“How are you doing?” Shepard asked.

“Oh, pretty good,” Glenn casually responded, later adding, 𠇋ut that was a real fireball, boy.”

Exterior pieces of the capsule’s had broken off during reentry and burst into flame. A defective warning light caused much of the panic, but during those four tense minutes, it was feared that Glenn had been lost – along with the promise of the space program.

When he splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean after 4 hours 56 minutes aloft, Glenn emerged as an almost mythic figure who had scaled heights no American had reached before.

“I was fully aware of the danger,” he said in 1968. “No matter what preparation you make, there comes the moment of truth. You’re playing with big stakes – your life. But the important thing to me wasn’t fear but what you can do to control it.”

He was greeted upon his return by President John F. Kennedy and Vice President Lyndon Johnson. After an estimated 1 million spectators crowded the streets of Washington, Glenn insisted that the other six Mercury astronauts join him for a parade before 4 million people in New York.

𠇍uring his ticker-tape parade up Broadway,” Wolfe wrote, “you have never heard such cheers or seen so many thousands of people crying.”

Fighter pilot

John Herschel Glenn Jr. was born July 18, 1921, in Cambridge, Ohio, and grew up in New Concord, Ohio. His father ran a plumbing supply business and later had a Chevrolet dealership. His mother taught at an elementary school.

Glenn was an honor student in high school, lettered in three sports and played trumpet in the band. At Muskingum College in New Concord, he was a reserve center on the football team.

He took flying lessons in his teens and left college early in 1942 to enter a Navy pilot training program before transferring to the aviation branch of the Marine Corps. On April 6, 1943, he married Anna 𠇊nnie” Castor, whom he had known since childhood.

During World War II, Glenn flew 59 missions as a fighter pilot and took part in the Marshall Islands campaign in the Pacific. He was stationed on Guam in the Western Pacific and was a flight instructor in Texas before returning to action in the Korean War.

He was in the same squadron in Korea as baseball star Ted Williams and flew 90 missions as a jet fighter pilot. He once returned with more than 200 holes shot through the fuselage and wings of his plane.

Attached to an Air Force unit, Glenn shot down three Soviet-made MiGs during the final nine days of the war in 1953, leading his crew to paint “MiG Mad Marine” on the side of his F-86 Sabre jet.

After Korea, Glenn was a test pilot at the naval air station at Patuxent River, Maryland, and set a transcontinental speed record on July 16, 1957, by flying an F8U-1 Crusader jet coast to coast in 3 hours 23 minutes.

He worked at the Navy’s Bureau of Aeronautics and eventually was awarded a bachelor’s degree by Muskingum. He also found time in 1957 to appear on the game show “Name That Tune” with child actor Eddie Hodges. They split $25,000 in prize money, which was more than Glenn’s annual pay as a test pilot.

When NASA began recruiting a team of astronauts, it sought skilled pilots who could withstand rigorous physical and psychological testing and who – to fit into cramped space capsules – were shorter than 5 feet 11 inches tall. (Glenn was 5-foot-101/2 .)

With their courage and know-how, the Mercury astronauts embodied the spirit of the “New Frontier” espoused by Kennedy, and Glenn became friends with the youthful president and his brother Robert F. Kennedy, the attorney general.

Encouraged by the Kennedy family, Glenn resigned from the astronaut corps in 1964 to run for the U.S. Senate in Ohio. He dropped out after slipping on a rug and striking his head on a bathtub, resulting in inner-ear problems that required extensive medical treatment. In 1965, he retired from the Marine Corps, having received six Distinguished Flying Crosses and 19 Air Medals.

He then became an executive with Royal Crown Cola, invested in real estate and worked with a management company that operated Holiday Inns, particularly around Orlando, Florida. Within a few years, he was a millionaire.

Glenn stayed close to the Kennedys and was at the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles when Robert Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968. He accompanied five of Kennedy’s 10 children (an 11th was born after his death) back to their home in McLean, Virginia. The next morning, Glenn informed the other children that their father had been killed.

“When Bob died, I had to sit on the edge of the bed as each child was waking up and tell them their dad was not coming home,” Glenn told a Muskingum audience in 1997. “It was one of the hardest things I ever did.”

He was a pallbearer at Robert Kennedy’s funeral at Arlington National Cemetery and handed the flag from the coffin to Sen. Edward Kennedy, D-Mass. Soon afterward, Glenn helped organize a group that successfully lobbied for passage of a national gun control act in 1968.

Loses primary

Making a second bid for the Senate in 1970, Glenn called for the withdrawal of U.S. troops from Vietnam, but he lost the Democratic primary in Ohio to businessman Howard M. Metzenbaum. Then-Rep. Robert Taft Jr., a Republican, won the general election.

Early in 1974, Metzenbaum was appointed to the Senate to fill the expiring term of William B. Saxbe, who resigned to become U.S. attorney general. When Metzenbaum ran for a full Senate term that year, Glenn challenged him again in the primary.

At a time when the military was unpopular, Metzenbaum repeatedly called Glenn 𠇌olonel” and questioned his ability as a leader, saying he had never “met a payroll.” The comment was widely seen as an insult, insinuating that Glenn had never held a “real” job.

In a debate with Metzenbaum, the retired Marine flashed the steel beneath his benign Midwestern smile.

“I served 23 years in the United States Marine Corps,” Glenn said. “I was through two wars. I flew 149 missions. My plane was hit by antiaircraft fire on 12 different occasions.

“I was in the space program. It wasn’t my checkbook, it was my life that was on the line. . . . I ask you to go with me . . . to a veterans hospital, and look those men with their mangled bodies in the eye and tell them they didn’t hold a job.

“You go with me to any Gold Star mother, and you look her in the eye and tell her that her son did not hold a job.

& # x201c. . . Stand in Arlington National Cemetery – where I have more friends than I like to remember – and you watch those waving flags . . . and you tell me that those people didn’t have a job.

“I tell you, Howard Metzenbaum, you should be on your knees every day of your life thanking God that there were some men – some men – who held a job. . . . And their self-sacrifice is what has made this country possible.

The powerful “Gold Star Mother” speech, recognizing families that had lost children in foreign wars, quickly turned the polls in Glenn’s favor. He defeated Metzenbaum in the primary and then easily won the November general election, sweeping all of Ohio’s 88 counties. Reelected in 1980, 1986 and 1992, Glenn was the first senator from Ohio to win four consecutive elections.

Presidential bid

On Capitol Hill, Glenn was a strong supporter of the military and an authority on intelligence issues. He supported a woman’s right to abortion and was an advocate of campaign finance reform, national health insurance and medical research.

He sponsored bills to improve the safety of nursing homes, reduce government paperwork and limit nuclear proliferation. As chairman of the Governmental Affairs Committee from 1988 to 1994, he helped create the Department of Veterans Affairs.

In the late 1980s, Glenn’s political action committee accepted a contribution from financier Charles H. Keating Jr., who was at the center of a nationwide savings-and-loan scandal. The Senate Ethics Committee ruled that Glenn 𠇎xercised poor judgment,” but he was cleared of any wrongdoing.

He made a run for the 1984 Democratic presidential nomination but proved to be an awkward campaigner and quit the race early, saying, “I humiliated my family, gained 16 pounds and went millions of dollars into debt.”

On Feb. 20, 1997, the 35th anniversary of his spaceflight, Glenn announced that he would not run for reelection in 1998. He established a public policy institute at Ohio State University and wrote his memoirs. In 2012, Glenn was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation’s highest civilian honor.

In addition to his wife, of Columbus and Bethesda, Maryland, survivors include two children, J. David Glenn of Berkeley, California, and Carolyn “Lyn” Glenn of St. Paul, Minnesota. and two grandsons.

Revered for his heroism as an astronaut, Glenn remained close to the space program long after leaving NASA. In 1986, immediately after the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger, he made a little-publicized trip to Cape Canaveral to comfort the families of astronauts killed in the disaster.

Every year, he sent the results of his physical exams to NASA, just in case. At 75, he could still do 75 push-ups. In 1996, he set a flying record by piloting a twin-engine plane from Dayton, Ohio, to Washington in 1 hour, 36 minutes.

When Glenn was named to the crew of the space shuttle Discovery, skeptics said NASA was awarding him a vanity flight to make him, at 77, the oldest person ever to go into space. During the nine-day mission in 1998, Glenn helped film the flight and took part in experiments on aging. He made one of his final public appearances in June 2016, when the Columbus airport was renamed in his honor.

His return to space was a reminder of what he had accomplished more than three decades earlier, when he soared into the heavens and gave renewed hope to a grateful nation.

“People are afraid of the future, of the unknown,” he said in 1962. “If a man faces up to it and takes the dare of the future, he can have some control over his destiny.”


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