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Battle of Arkansas Post, 10-11 de janeiro de 1863

Battle of Arkansas Post, 10-11 de janeiro de 1863


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Battle of Arkansas Post, 10-11 de janeiro de 1863

Um breve interlúdio entre as tentativas da União de capturar Vicksburg, a fortaleza confederada mais significativa deixada no rio Mississippi no final de 1862 (Guerra Civil Americana).

A batalha viu o General John A. McClernand rapidamente ganhar destaque. McClernand era um general "político" (ou seja, não era graduado em West Point). Um democrata de "guerra" de Illinois, McClernand convenceu Lincoln de que poderia formar um novo exército capaz de tomar Vicksburg se recebesse o comando da expedição. O General Halleck conseguiu reduzir a autoridade de McClernand à de um comandante de corpo normal, embora ele ainda superasse Sherman pela simples antiguidade. McClernand provou ser capaz de cumprir a primeira parte de sua promessa, levantando uma série de novos regimentos no noroeste, mas sua capacidade de comandar um exército ainda não estava comprovada.

No final de 1862, Grant lançou seu primeiro ataque a Vicksburg. Enquanto Grant avançava por terra, Sherman deveria lançar um segundo ataque do Mississippi. McClernand ainda não havia chegado com o exército e, portanto, não foi capaz de assumir o comando sozinho. Infelizmente, quando Grant foi forçado a abandonar sua campanha, ele não conseguiu levar a notícia a Sherman a tempo de impedir o ataque de Sherman. Este ataque foi repelido com pesadas perdas (Batalha de Chickasaw Bluffs, 29 de dezembro de 1862). Sherman retirou-se para a Curva de Milliken, onde McClernand se juntou a ele.

Embora as forças da União controlassem a maior parte do Mississippi, os confederados ainda tinham algumas forças próximas o suficiente para ameaçar o rio. Uma dessas forças estava baseada em Arkansas Post, a apenas 80 quilômetros rio acima no rio Arkansas, que unia o Mississippi a meio caminho entre Memphis e Vicksburg. Embora apenas 5.000 homens, essa força era grande o suficiente para representar uma ameaça potencial às comunicações da União durante qualquer ataque a Vicksburg. Sherman estava convencido de que valia a pena enviar uma expedição contra essa posição e, finalmente, conseguiu persuadir McClernand a aprovar o ataque.

Assim que aceitou a ideia, McClernand moveu todo o seu exército de 32.000 homens rio acima no Arkansas para atacar o posto. Em 9 de janeiro, as tropas foram desembarcadas rio abaixo do forte. No dia seguinte, os couraçados do almirante Porter começaram a bombardear o forte confederado. Finalmente, em 11 de janeiro, o exército e a marinha lançaram um ataque combinado ao forte. Após quatro horas de resistência, a guarnição confederada em menor número se rendeu.

As perdas sindicais foram surpreendentemente pesadas, considerando sua grande vantagem em números, com 134 mortos, 898 feridos e 29 desaparecidos. As baixas confederadas foram menores, com 60 mortos e 75 feridos, mas também perderam 4.791 homens capturados. A queda do Arkansas Post também removeu a melhor chance do Confederado de interferir em um ataque da União em Vicksburg.

Ironicamente, o resultado da batalha viu a remoção de McClernand, apesar de sua falta de entusiasmo inicial pela expedição. Antes de tomar posse total dos fatos, Grant havia escrito ao General Halleck para reclamar sobre o que considerou um desperdício de diversão de McClernand. Armado com a carta de Grant, Halleck foi capaz de persuadir Lincoln a permitir que ele emitisse uma ordem dando permissão a Grant para remover McClernand do comando da expedição de Vicksburg e nomear um novo comandante ou assumir a si mesmo. Enquanto isso, Grant estava recebendo reclamações sobre McClernand de Sherman e do contra-almirante David Porter. De acordo com sua autobiografia, quando Grant alcançou o exército de McClernand, ficou claro que ele havia perdido a confiança tanto do exército quanto da marinha. Isso deu a Grant um certo problema. Ele teria preferido dar a Sherman o comando do exército, mas McClernand era o general sênior. A solução de Grant foi assumir o comando do próprio Vicksburg, com McClernand e Sherman como comandantes do Corpo de exército.


Guerra Civil Americana: Battle of Arkansas Post

A Batalha de Arkansas Post ocorreu durante a Guerra Civil Americana (1861-1865).

Exércitos e comandantes:

Confederado

Batalha de Arkansas Post - Data:

As tropas da União operaram contra o Fort Hindman de 9 a 11 de janeiro de 1863.

Battle of Arkansas Post - Background:

Ao retornar ao rio Mississippi de sua derrota na Batalha de Chickasaw Bayou no final de dezembro de 1862, o Major General William T. Sherman encontrou o corpo do Major General John McClernand. Um político que se tornou general, McClernand foi autorizado a fazer um ataque contra a fortaleza confederada de Vicksburg. O oficial sênior, McClernand, acrescentou o corpo de Sherman ao seu e continuou para o sul acompanhado por canhoneiras comandadas pelo contra-almirante David D. Porter. Alertado sobre a captura do navio a vapor Asa Azul, McClernand decidiu abandonar seu ataque a Vicksburg em favor de atacar o Arkansas Post.

Situado em uma curva do rio Arkansas, o Arkansas Post era operado por 4.900 homens sob o comando do Brigadeiro-General Thomas Churchill, com as defesas centralizadas no Forte Hindman. Apesar de ser uma base conveniente para atacar navios no Mississippi, o principal comandante da União na área, o major-general Ulysses S. Grant, não achava que justificasse a transferência de forças dos esforços contra Vicksburg para a captura. Discordando de Grant e na esperança de ganhar a glória para si mesmo, McClernand desviou sua expedição pelo corte de White River e abordou o Arkansas Post em 9 de janeiro de 1863.

Battle of Arkansas Post - McClernand Lands:

Alertado sobre a abordagem de McClernand, Churchill posicionou seus homens em uma série de poços de rifle a cerca de três quilômetros ao norte de Fort Hindman com o objetivo de desacelerar o avanço da União. A um quilômetro de distância, McClernand desembarcou o grosso de suas tropas na Plantação de Nortrebe, na margem norte, enquanto ordenava que um destacamento avançasse ao longo da costa sul. Com os pousos concluídos às 11h do dia 10 de janeiro, McClernand começou a se mover contra Churchill. Vendo que estava em grande desvantagem numérica, Churchill voltou a suas linhas perto do Forte Hindman por volta das 2h.

Battle of Arkansas Post - O Bombardeio Começa:

Avançando com suas tropas de assalto, McClernand não estava em posição de atacar antes das 5h30. Couraçados de Porter Baron DeKalb, Louisville, e Cincinnati abriu a batalha fechando e engajando os canhões do Fort Hindman. Disparando por várias horas, o bombardeio naval não cessou até o anoitecer. Incapazes de atacar na escuridão, as tropas da União passaram a noite em suas posições. Em 11 de janeiro, McClernand usou a manhã para organizar meticulosamente seus homens para o ataque às linhas de Churchill. Às 13 horas, as canhoneiras de Porter voltaram à ação com o apoio da artilharia que havia pousado na costa sul.

Battle of Arkansas Post - O assalto começa:

Disparando por três horas, eles efetivamente silenciaram as armas do forte. Enquanto os canhões silenciavam, a infantaria avançou contra as posições confederadas. Nos trinta minutos seguintes, pouco progresso foi feito à medida que vários tiroteios intensos se desenvolveram. Às 4:30, com McClernand planejando outro ataque maciço, bandeiras brancas começaram a aparecer ao longo das linhas confederadas. Aproveitando, as tropas da União rapidamente tomaram a posição e aceitaram a rendição confederada. Após a batalha, Churchill negou veementemente que autorizasse seus homens a capitular.

Resultado da Batalha de Arkansas Post:

Carregando os confederados capturados em transportes, McClernand os mandou para o norte, para campos de prisioneiros. Depois de ordenar que seus homens destruíssem Fort Hindman, ele despachou uma surtida contra South Bend, AR e começou a fazer planos com Porter para uma jogada contra Little Rock. Ao saber do desvio de forças de McClernand para o Arkansas Post e sua pretendida campanha em Little Rock, um irado Grant revogou as ordens de McClernand e exigiu que ele voltasse com os dois corpos. Sem escolha, McClernand embarcou em seus homens e voltou ao principal esforço do Union contra o Vicksburg.

Considerado um diletante ambicioso por Grant, McClernand foi substituído mais tarde na campanha. Os combates no Arkansas Post custaram a McClernand 134 mortos, 898 feridos e 29 desaparecidos, enquanto as estimativas da Confederação listam 60 mortos, 80 feridos e 4.791 capturados.


O Exército dos Estados Confederados construiu uma grande fortificação de terraplenagem de quatro lados perto do Arkansas Post, em um penhasco 25 pés acima do lado norte do rio, quarenta e cinco milhas rio abaixo de Pine Bluff, para proteger o rio Arkansas e impedir a passagem do Exército da União para Pedra pequena. O forte comandava uma vista de uma milha acima e abaixo do rio. Foi uma base para interromper a navegação no rio Mississippi. O forte foi nomeado Fort Hindman em homenagem ao General Thomas C. Hindman de Arkansas. Era tripulado por aproximadamente 5.000 homens, principalmente cavalaria do Texas, desmontada e reafectada como infantaria, e infantaria do Arkansas, em três brigadas sob o Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Churchill. No inverno de 1862-63, a doença e sua vida no final de uma tênue cadeia de suprimentos deixaram a guarnição de Fort Hindman em péssimo estado.

O major-general da União John A. McClernand era um político ambicioso e teve permissão do presidente Abraham Lincoln para lançar uma ofensiva do tamanho de uma corporação contra Vicksburg de Memphis, Tennessee, na esperança de glória militar (e subsequente ganho político). Este plano estava em desacordo com os do comandante do Exército do Tennessee, major-general Ulysses S. Grant. McClernand ordenou que o subordinado de Grant, o major-general William T. Sherman, se juntasse às tropas de seu corpo com o de McClernand, chamando os dois corpos de Exército do Mississippi, aproximadamente 33.000 homens. Em 4 de janeiro, ele lançou um movimento combinado exército-marinha no Arkansas Post, ao invés de Vicksburg, como ele havia dito a Lincoln (e não se preocupou em informar Grant ou o general em chefe, major-general Henry W. Halleck).

Edição de União

Edição Confederada

9 de janeiro Editar

Os barcos da União começaram a desembarcar tropas perto de Notrebe's Plantation, 3 milhas abaixo do Arkansas Post na noite de 9 de janeiro. As tropas começaram a subir o rio em direção ao Fort Hindman e o corpo de Sherman invadiu as trincheiras confederadas. O inimigo recuou para a proteção do forte, [1] ancorado no leste pelo rio Arkansas, e fossos de rifle adjacentes correndo para oeste ao longo da extensão de terra. Às 11h da manhã seguinte, o restante do exército da União havia desembarcado. Churchill ficou surpreso com o tamanho esmagador da força da União e imediatamente solicitou reforços de seu superior, Theophilus H. Holmes. Holmes aconselhou Churchill a “. aguente até que a ajuda chegue ou até que todos morram. ” [2]

10 de janeiro Editar

Em 10 de janeiro, o exército da União moveu-se rio acima para investir totalmente a guarnição confederada. Duas brigadas da divisão de Peter J. Osterhaus do corpo de George W. Morgan foram destacadas do movimento principal do exército. A brigada do coronel Daniel W. Lindsey foi colocada em terra na margem do rio em frente ao forte e a brigada do coronel John F. De Courcey foi mantida na reserva perto do local de desembarque inicial. [3] Morgan avançou Osterhaus (acompanhando sua brigada restante) ao longo do dique do rio, seguido por sua divisão restante sob Andrew J. Smith. Sherman seguiu com a divisão de David Stuart ao longo do rio e enviou sua outra divisão sob o comando de Frederick Steele para o interior para encontrar uma rota de flanco, mas falhou devido à terra pantanosa e estradas intransitáveis. [3] O avanço da coluna de Morgan ultrapassou a primeira linha de trincheiras confederadas tripuladas em grande parte pela cavalaria desmontada do Texas.

Enquanto os soldados de McClernand se moviam contra o forte, as canhoneiras de Porter Baron DeKalb, Louisville, e Cincinnati, moveu-se contra o forte. A Marinha atingiu o forte a uma distância de 400 jardas. The Union tinclad Rattler aproximou-se muito, encalhou e recebeu fogo pesado à queima-roupa do forte. Depois de várias horas, o bombardeio naval infligiu pesadas baixas à artilharia confederada. [4] Enquanto isso, McClernand enviou um tenente do exército até uma árvore para observar se as tropas de Morgan e Sherman estavam no local. O tenente relatou que eles estavam no lugar e prontos para atacar, mas as tropas de Sherman ainda estavam se posicionando em pântanos lamacentos. Quando o ataque da Marinha foi concluído, estava escuro demais para a infantaria atacar, embora algumas escaramuças tivessem ocorrido.

11 de janeiro Editar

Na manhã de 11 de janeiro, as forças de McClernand foram posicionadas em um arco voltado para o Forte Hindman e seus fossos de rifle. Correndo de oeste para leste estavam as divisões de Steele, Stuart, Smith com Osterhaus ancorados no rio Arkansas. As defesas de Churchill eram tripuladas pela brigada do coronel James Deshler à esquerda e pela brigada do coronel Robert Garland à direita. A infantaria de McClernand atacou por volta das 13h e fez pouco progresso no início. Ao mesmo tempo, as canhoneiras de Porter avançaram para atacar, ajudadas pela brigada do coronel Lindsey do outro lado do rio. Em uma hora, a face leste do forte foi reduzida a escombros e sua artilharia silenciada. [5] O ataque de Steele no oeste foi liderado pelas brigadas do Brig. Gens. Charles E. Hovey e John M. Thayer com Francis P. Blair, Jr. na reserva. Para o leste, Stuart apoiou as brigadas dos coronéis Giles Smith e Thomas Kilby Smith contra os buracos de rifle dos soldados de Deshler no Arkansas e no Texas. No centro A.J. Smith liderou seu ataque com Brig. Brigada do general Stephen G. Burbridge apoiada pelo coronel William J. Landram. Os homens de Burbridge envolveram-se em uma luta de armas leves, que causou mais de 1/3 de todas as baixas da União. [4] Osterhaus avançou contra o forte com a única brigada do coronel Lionel A. Sheldon.

Às 16h30, McClernand planejava ordenar um ataque maciço contra os defensores quando bandeiras brancas de rendição começaram a aparecer. A batalha terminou com alguma confusão. [4] As canhoneiras de Porter pegaram a infantaria da brigada de Lindsey e os transportaram através do rio, que escalou até os destroços do Forte Hindman. Porter aceitou pessoalmente a rendição do coronel John Dunnington, que estava encarregado da artilharia do forte. O general Steele entrou nos rifles sob uma bandeira de trégua para discutir a rendição com o coronel Deshler. Enquanto os dois conferenciavam, Deshler percebeu que os homens de Steele se aproximavam continuamente e exigiu que eles parassem ou ele abriria fogo novamente. O general Sherman entrou em cena para procurar pessoalmente Churchill. No entanto, Sherman ficou parado enquanto Churchill e o coronel Garland se envolviam em uma discussão sobre a rendição. Garland alegou que ele havia recebido ordens de se render, enquanto Churchill negou ter dado tal ordem. O coronel Deshler cavalgou de sua frente e declarou ao grupo que não havia se rendido em absoluto e insistiu em renovar a luta. Sherman encerrou a discussão apontando que as forças da União praticamente ocuparam as instalações do Confederado. Alguns soldados da União até começaram a desarmar os confederados. [6] Uma cena final ocorreu quando um oficial do estado-maior da União entrou no forte e exigiu que a Marinha desocupasse, então A.J. A infantaria de Smith pode tomar posse. No entanto, o forte já havia sido entregue a Porter. O coronel Dunnington, que tinha experiência na Marinha, reconheceu uma pequena satisfação por ser capaz de se render a um colega oficial da Marinha em vez da infantaria. [7]

A derrota no Arkansas Post custou à Confederação um quarto de sua força desdobrada em Arkansas, a maior rendição das tropas rebeldes a oeste do rio Mississippi antes da capitulação final dos confederados em 1865. [4] com 134 confederados mortos, 4.900, quase todos por rendição. Embora as perdas da União tenham sido altas e a vitória não tenha contribuído para a captura de Vicksburg, ela eliminou mais um impedimento para a navegação da União no Mississippi. Grant ficou furioso com o desvio de McClernand de sua estratégia geral de campanha, ordenou-o de volta ao Mississippi, dissolveu o Exército do Mississippi e assumiu o comando pessoal da Campanha de Vicksburg.


Battle of Arkansas Post, 10-11 de janeiro de 1863 - História


Em 1682, Henri de Tonti estabeleceu um pequeno entreposto comercial na vila Quapaw de Osotuoy. Ele chamou seu estabelecimento de & # 8220Postede Arkansea & # 8221 e ele se tornaria o primeiro assentamento francês semipermanente no vale do rio Mississippi. A área, posteriormente rebatizada de Arkansas Post, tornou-se um porto próspero e movimentado. Em 1819, tornou-se a capital do Território de Arkansas.

Depois que a Guerra Civil estourou em 1861, as tropas confederadas comandadas pelo general Thomas J. Churchill completaram uma fortificação de terra conhecida como Fort Hindman. Esta região foi importante para os rebeldes por várias razões distintas. Primeiro, a área dominou o rio Arkansas e protegeu a capital Little Rock de ataques. Em segundo lugar, de Fort Hindman, no Arkansas Post, os confederados poderiam interromper o transporte da União no rio Mississippi.

Em meados de 1862, as forças da União comandaram a maior parte do rio Mississippi. No entanto, o forte confederado em Vicksburg e Fort Hindman ainda se manteve. O General de Divisão John McClernand empreendeu um movimento de força combinada no Arkansas Post para capturá-lo. Durante a noite de 9 de janeiro de 1863, as forças federais desembarcaram perto do Arkansas Post e começaram a se mover em direção ao Fort Hindman. McClernand comandou uma força de 32.000 homens conhecida como Exército do Mississippi. As tropas da União rapidamente invadiram as trincheiras rebeldes e os homens em Butternut fugiram para a proteção do forte.

O contra-almirante David Porter moveu sua frota para apoiar os homens de McClernands bombardeando o Fort Hindman. Os confederados lutaram bem, mas foram oprimidos pelos couraçados da União que bombardeavam as defesas fracas do forte. Parte da frota de Porter & # 8217s passou pelo forte e interrompeu qualquer retirada quando as tropas terrestres do General William T. Sherman & # 8217 atacaram o forte de frente. Este esforço combinado selou o destino dos defensores do forte e os confederados foram forçados a se render em 11 de janeiro de 1863.

As causalidades da União (1.047 no total) foram muito altas, mas os resultados gerais da Batalha de Arkansas Post foram imediatos. O sucesso das tropas do norte em 9-11 de janeiro eliminou mais um impedimento para a navegação da União no Mississippi e deu-lhes o controle do rio Arkansas. McClernand queria subir o rio e tomar Little Rock, mas o general Ulysses S. Grant o rejeitou e os vencedores receberam ordens de se juntar ao avanço da União em Vicksburg, Mississippi. Para a Confederação, foi um dos muitos reveses confederados em 1863 que acabariam por levar à sua queda. Além disso, o Sul perdeu mais 5.500 homens mortos, feridos ou capturados, o que era um sinal do que estava por vir em julho em Vicksburg.

Esta batalha faz parte da minha série Batalhas esquecidas da Guerra Civil. Muitas vezes, como fãs da história e da Guerra Civil, esquecemos algumas das pequenas batalhas que tiveram grandes consequências. Esta série é dedicada a essas batalhas e a lançar alguma luz sobre incidentes que tiveram resultados enormes. Espero que você esteja gostando desses concursos e se houver algo que eu possa fazer para melhorá-los, por favor, me envie um e-mail ou deixe um comentário.

Quer visitar o Arkansas Post? Mais informações podem ser encontradas nos seguintes sites e publicações:

Bearss, Edwin C. & # 8220The Battle of the Post of Arkansas. & # 8221 Arkansas Historical Quarterly 18 (outono de 1959): 237 & # 8211279.
Kiper, Richard L. & # 8220John Alexander McClernard and the Arkansas Post Campaign. & # 8221 Arkansas Historical Quarterly 56 (Primavera de 1997): 56 & # 821179.
Surovic, Arthur F. & # 8220Union Assault on Arkansas Post. & # 8221 Military History 12 (March 1996): 34 & # 821140.
A guerra da rebelião: uma compilação dos registros oficiais da União e dos exércitos confederados. Série 1, vol. 17. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1890 & # 82111901, pp. 698 & # 8211796.


Este mapa ilustra a posição de Fort Hindman no Arkansas Post no rio Arkansas. São retratadas as posições das defesas confederadas, bem como dos navios no rio. A 23ª Infantaria de Wisconsin e a 1ª Artilharia Leve de Wisconsin estiveram ambos envolvidos na batalha de Arkansas Post. Veja o documento original: WHI 90871

Local: Arkansas Post, Arkansas (mapa do Google)

Campanha: Operações contra Vicksburg (dezembro de 1862 a janeiro de 1863)

Resumo

A vitória na Batalha de Arkansas Post deu às forças da União o controle do rio Mississippi até Vicksburg, Mississippi.

No início de 1863, as tropas confederadas tinham uma fortaleza em Fort Hindman, no rio Mississippi, perto da cidade de Arkansas Post, Arkansas. Construído com aterros reforçados com ferro no topo de um penhasco de 25 pés, o forte abrigava mais de 5.000 soldados. O Fort Hindman foi usado para realizar ataques a granel contra a navegação da União e impediu que as tropas da União avançassem rio acima do Arkansas para o interior.

Em 9 de janeiro de 1863, os navios da União desembarcaram infantaria e artilharia a cerca de uma milha rio abaixo do Forte Hindman. No dia seguinte, eles invadiram as trincheiras dos confederados e finalmente empurraram o inimigo de volta para dentro do forte. Canhoneiras da União e baterias de artilharia do outro lado do rio bombardearam o forte. Os confederados concederam em 11 de janeiro, entregando mais de 5.000 prisioneiros. Essa vitória deu liberdade à União para mover soldados e suprimentos pelo Mississippi.

Papel de Wisconsin

A 23ª Infantaria de Wisconsin esteve no meio da ação durante os três dias. Seis homens foram mortos e 31 feridos. As empresas B, G e K estavam no avanço que empurrou as tropas confederadas de volta para dentro das paredes do forte em 10 de janeiro. Uma seção da 1ª artilharia leve de Wisconsin bombardeou o forte do outro lado do rio, impedindo a fuga do inimigo. Outra seção destruiu um lado do forte e silenciou vários canhões confederados dentro dele.

Links para aprender mais
Ver documentos originais

[Fonte: Relatório sobre os campos de batalha da Guerra Civil da Nação (Washington, 1993) Estabrook, C. Registros e Esboços de Organizações Militares (Madison, 1914) Love, W. Wisconsin na Guerra da Rebelião (Madison, 1866).]


Declínio da linha do tempo do Arkansas Post 1822-1900

Após a remoção da Capital Territorial para Little Rock, uma enxurrada de atividades voltou ao Arkansas Post no outono de 1862, quando as forças confederadas construíram um forte de terraplenagem para defender o rio Arkansas e servir como base de operações para assediar as forças dos Estados Unidos que operam em o rio Mississippi. Na primeira semana de janeiro de 1863, uma força combinada do Exército e da Marinha dos Estados Unidos subiu o rio Arkansas com o Arkansas Post como alvo. Uma batalha de dois dias se seguiu, colocando 32.000 soldados americanos e nove canhoneiras contra 5.000 a 7.000 soldados confederados. Em menor número, quase cinco para um, as forças confederadas se renderam em 11 de janeiro de 1863 e quase 5.000 soldados confederados foram feitos prisioneiros.

Após a Guerra Civil, a área do local da cidade velha foi abandonada e a comunidade de Arkansas Post mudou-se ao longo da margem do rio cerca de uma milha ao norte. Uma pequena cidade portuária fluvial lutou para sobreviver ali nos últimos anos do século XIX.

1822 John James Audubon, o famoso artista naturalista, visita o Arkansas Post e, enquanto lá pinta, documenta o Traill's Flycatcher.

1824 O Tratado de Quapaw foi reescrito pelo Governo Territorial de Arkansas em Little Rock. Todas as terras dos Quapaw foram cedidas ao Território e a Tribo foi "realocada" para o nordeste de Oklahoma.

1830 A população de Arkansas Post diminuiu para 114.

1832 Washington Irving visita o Arkansas Post ao retornar de uma visita ao Território Indígena.

Um esforço malsucedido é feito para estabelecer uma Igreja Católica no Arkansas Post pelo Padre Edmond Saulnier.

1837 O conto de Washington Irving baseado em sua visita ao Post, A aldeia crioula, é publicado pela primeira vez.

Um segundo esforço é feito para estabelecer uma Igreja Católica no Posto. é feito pelo Padre Dupuy. Este esforço continuou em 1838 pelo Padre Donnelly, o sucessor de Dupuy. Este segundo esforço provavelmente falhou devido à má situação econômica da região.

1838 24 de dezembro Uma filial do State Bank of Arkansas abriu o State Bank

1839 19 de junho Propostas para a construção de edifício permanente para abrigar a agência do Banco do Estado foram solicitadas no Arkansas Gazette.

1840 4 de abril Frederic e Felicite Notrebe vendem um terreno de 24 metros para o State Bank como local para a agência bancária do Arkansas Post. A construção do novo prédio do banco começa logo em seguida.

novembro O Arkansas Post Jockey Club estabeleceu uma pista de corrida ao norte do Post em uma parte do Spanish Land Grant No. 2296. As corridas foram realizadas em 1840 e 1841.

1841 O prédio do Banco do Estado foi concluído no início de fevereiro. O custo total de construção da estrutura de tijolos de dois andares foi de US $ 15.761,29.

1842 agosto As Irmãs de Loretto estabelecem a St. Ambrose's Female Academy em Arkansas Post, após o fechamento de uma academia em Pine Bluff. A fundadora da academia foi a Irmã Allodia Vessels. A academia provavelmente só funcionou por um ou dois anos.

1843 31 de janeiro A Assembleia Legislativa do Estado aprovou uma lei "para colocar o Banco do Estado de Arkansas em liquidação". No final do ano, todas as agências do banco foram fechadas, inclusive a do Arkansas Post.

1853 Três comissários foram eleitos para realocar a sede do Condado de Arkansas. Arkansas Post serviu como sede do condado desde a criação do condado em 1813.

1854 A nova sede do condado foi nomeada De Witt, em homenagem a De Witt Clinton, ex-governador de Nova York.

1855 setembro A sede do condado de Arkansas foi oficialmente transferida do Post para De Witt. A remoção da sede do condado foi um golpe mortal para a comunidade de Arkansas Post, que vinha diminuindo constantemente desde 1821.

1857 Um visitante do Post escreveu que o antigo prédio do Banco do Estado estava sendo usado apenas para "realizar eleições e preparar cavalos.

1861 Poderia Arkansas se separa da União e se junta à Confederação.

1862 setembro . A construção começa em um forte maciço de terraplenagem na curva do rio perto do Arkansas Post. Conhecido como Fort Hindman, foi construído em grande parte pelo trabalho de aproximadamente 500 escravos.

1863 3 de janeiro Após uma grande derrota fora de Vicksburg no final de dezembro, os comandantes do Exército dos EUA McClernand e Sherman se encontram com o almirante Porter para discutir um ataque contra a guarnição confederada no Arkansas Post.

9 de janeiro As frotas combinadas do Exército e da Marinha dos EUA dobram o rio White e cruzam o rio Arkansas por um corte. Sentinelas confederadas alertam o General Churchill sobre a chegada iminente de forças dos EUA na área. Churchill ordena que a guarnição do Forte Hindman abandone seus quartéis de inverno e recue para trás de uma linha de defesa que se estende a oeste do Forte até Post Bayou, com aproximadamente uma milha de comprimento. Inicia-se o trabalho de fortalecimento da linha de defesa em toda a sua extensão.

10 de janeiro As tropas americanas desembarcam da frota de transporte cerca de seis milhas rio abaixo do Forte e começam a se dirigir para o Forte. As defesas externas confederadas foram abandonadas durante este tempo. No final da tarde, as três canhoneiras blindadas da frota naval (The USS Baron de Kalb, USS Cincinnatie USS Louisville) mova-se dentro do alcance do Forte Hindman e bombardeie o forte e as forças confederadas por duas horas, antes do pôr do sol.

11 de janeiro Durante as horas da manhã, o Major General McClernand ordena que seus três corpos se posicionem ao norte da linha de defesa confederada. Ao meio-dia, começa uma barragem de artilharia de duas horas, incluindo as canhoneiras e a artilharia de campanha. Em seguida, começa um ataque por terra na linha confederada. Os confederados, incluindo soldados de Arkansas, Louisiana e Texas, resistem até cerca de 4:30 da tarde, quando soldados no meio da linha de defesa colocam bandeiras brancas. Quase 5.000 soldados confederados são levados cativos após a rendição.

12 a 15 de janeiro As forças dos Estados Unidos permanecem na área de Arkansas Post por vários dias. Organizar os quase 5.000 prisioneiros, reunir todos os depósitos de ordenanças e outros equipamentos utilizáveis, enterrar os soldados americanos caídos e tornar o forte inoperante são as tarefas que ocupam a atenção das tropas. Um reconhecimento naval no rio Arkansas prova que os níveis da água estão muito baixos para que a frota prossiga rio acima em direção a Little Rock.

16 de janeiro As frotas combinadas do Exército e da Marinha dos EUA partem do Arkansas Post e retornam ao rio Mississippi. Os prisioneiros confederados foram levados primeiro para St. Louis e depois para Camp Douglas, nos arredores de Chicago. A área do Arkansas Post permanece quieta pelo resto da guerra.

Poderia A maioria dos Prisioneiros de Guerra Confederados capturados na Batalha de Arkansas Post são libertados e enviados para os cinemas orientais da guerra.

Soldados americanos enterrados no campo de batalha em Arkansas Post são transferidos para Pine Bluff e, mais tarde, para o Cemitério Nacional em Little Rock.

1860 a 1880

Após o fim da Guerra Civil, o sudeste do Arkansas, como a maior parte da antiga Confederação, é atingido por uma grande depressão econômica. Durante esse tempo, a comunidade de Arkansas Post mudou-se cerca de uma milha ao norte da área do local histórico da cidade. Um pequeno número de empresas, incluindo a Loja Fogee, atende fazendas da área e está localizado perto de um cais de barco a vapor.

A erosão da curva do rio adjacente ao Arkansas Post continua e, em meados da década de 1880, mais de cinquenta por cento do Fort Hindman caiu no rio Arkansas.

O primeiro trabalho arqueológico feito na área de Arkansas Post ocorre no local do monte Menard. O trabalho de campo foi feito por Edward Palmer sob a direção de Cyrus Thomas para o Smithsonian Institution.


Conteúdo

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Mapa e planta da fortificação.

O Exército dos Estados Confederados construiu uma grande fortificação de terraplanagem de quatro lados perto do Arkansas Post, em um penhasco 25 pés acima do lado norte do rio, quarenta e cinco milhas rio abaixo de Pine Bluff, para proteger o rio Arkansas e impedir a passagem do Exército da União para Pedra pequena. O forte comandava uma vista de uma milha acima e abaixo do rio. Foi uma base para interromper a navegação no rio Mississippi. O forte foi nomeado Fort Hindman em homenagem ao General Thomas C. Hindman de Arkansas. Era tripulado por aproximadamente 5.000 homens, principalmente cavalaria do Texas, desmontada e reafectada como infantaria, e infantaria do Arkansas, em três brigadas sob o Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Churchill. No inverno de 1862 e # 821163, a doença e sua vida no final de uma tênue cadeia de suprimentos deixaram a guarnição de Fort Hindman em péssimo estado.

O major-general da União John A. McClernand era um político ambicioso e teve permissão do presidente Abraham Lincoln para lançar uma ofensiva do tamanho de uma corporação contra Vicksburg de Memphis, Tennessee, na esperança de glória militar (e subsequente ganho político). Este plano estava em desacordo com os do comandante do Exército do Tennessee, major-general Ulysses S. Grant. McClernand ordenou que o subordinado de Grant, o major-general William T. Sherman, se juntasse às tropas de seu corpo com o de McClernand, chamando os dois corpos de Exército do Mississippi, aproximadamente 33.000 homens. Em 4 de janeiro, ele lançou um movimento combinado exército-marinha no Arkansas Post, ao invés de Vicksburg, como ele havia dito a Lincoln (e não se preocupou em informar Grant ou o general em chefe, major-general Henry W. Halleck).


Battle of Arkansas Post, 10-11 de janeiro de 1863 - História

The Battle of Arkansas Post
Uma importante ação preliminar para a batalha
de Vicksburg, o cenário da Batalha de
Arkansas Post é agora um memorial nacional.

A Batalha de Arkansas Post foi travada
controle de Fort Hindman, que ficava no que
agora é Arkansas Post National Memorial
perto de Gillett, Arkansas.

The engagement took place on January 10 -
11, 1863, during the Union campaign to take
Vicksburg, Mississippi. Fort Hindman is now
underwater, but much of the battlefield still
sobrevive.

The settlement of Arkansas Post had been in
existence for 170 years when Confederate
officials decided to fortify the site in 1862. The
Arkansas River route to Little Rock was wide
open and it was hoped that a strong fort at
Arkansas Post would prevent U.S. Navy
gunboats from steaming up and capturing
Little Rock.

Southern engineers decided to build a full-
bastioned fort on a 25-foot bluff just down the
Arkansas from the remains of the historic
village. Each side of the fort was 300 feet in
length, the parapet was 18-feet wide and the
surrounding ditch or dry moat was 20 feet
wide and 8 feet deep.

Named for General Thomas Hindman, the
fort was armed with two 9-inch Columbiads,
one 8-inch Columbiad, four 3-inch parrott
rifles on field carriages and four 6-pounder
field guns. These cannon could completely
control the Arkansas River, especially after
the Confederates drove pilings from the
opposite shore to force passing vessels into
the mouths of the guns.

The fort did its job for a time, even serving as
a base for raids to capture Union supply
boats on the Mississippi River. Its fate was
decided, however, by a bizarre bit of political
wrangling in Washington, D.C.

Major General John McClernand (US) had
been a powerful Democrat Party politician
before the war and had fought well as a
division commander at Fort Donelson and
Shiloh. He convinced President Abraham
Lincoln to allow him to raise troops in the
Midwest and use them for a strike on the
Confederate Gibraltar of Vicksburg.

Union troops had thus far been blunted in
their efforts to take Vicksburg, so Lincoln and
Secretary of War Edwin Stanton gave
McClernand the authority he wanted. Likely
aware that their action was unusual, Lincoln
and Stanton simply did not inform Major
General Ulysses S. Grant of their plan.

Grant was the department commander
charged with taking Vicksburg and only
learned of McClernand's special authority
after Commander-in-Chief Henry Halleck
warned him that something strange was
taking place.

General McClernand met with Major General
William Tecumseh Sherman and Rear
Admiral David D. Porter aboard the U.S. Navy
command boat Falcão on January 4,
1863. Despite his promise to the President,
he immediately vetoed a move against
Vicksburg. Sherman then suggested an
attack on Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post, an
idea that had also occurred to McClernand
and the decision was made.

Admiral Porter was less than enchanted with
McClernand but at Sherman's urging agreed
to participate in the attack. Sherman also did
not approve of McClernand, but was not in a
position to question his new commander.

The 31,000 man force was formed into two
corps, one under Sherman and the other
under Brigadier General George W. Morgan.
In addition to its 1,000 cavalry, the army also
possessed 40 pieces of field artillery.

Loaded onto 60 transports, the force began
moving on January 5, 1863. The amphibious
army was led up the Arkansas River by the
ironclads Baron De Kalb, Cincinnati e
Louisville . The gunboats and rams Monarch ,
Lexington , Forest Rose , Glide , New Era e
Rattler also went along, as did the command
vessel Falcão .

The fleet reached a landing three miles
below Fort Hindman at about nightfall on
January 9, 1863. It was a stormy night, but
the landing of the army began and continued
well into the next morning. Brigadier General
Thomas J. Churchill, the Confederate
commander, had only around 5,000 men to
oppose the 31,00 man Union army and the
supporting gunboats and ironclads.

The attack began on January 10,1863. Enquanto o
Federal troops moved into position, Churchill
ordered his men into a prepared line of rifle
pits that ran from Fort Hindman on the
Arkansas River across the Arkansas Post
peninsula to Post Bayou. At 10:10 a.m., the
Union fleet opened fire.

Porter moved his vessels to within 400 yards
of Fort Hindman to support an infantry attack
that McClernand had promised would take
place that afternoon. It took the general
longer to get his troops into position than he
expected however, and the attack never took
place.

The heavy Confederate cannon pounded the
Union ironclads and gunboats, causing
damage and inflicting casualties. Porteiro
withdrew at dark and January 10 ended with
Churchill's Confederates still clinging to their
lines.

It was not until 1 p.m. the next day that the
Union army finally attacked. Porter's vessels
resumed their attack on Fort Hindman,
dismounting the heavy guns and turning the
ramparts into smoking heaps of earth.

The Navy also directed its fire on the rifle pits
held by the Confederates, blowing holes in
the line of defense. The combination of naval
fire with the frontal attack by an overwhelming
infantry force was too much for the Southern
defenders. White flags began to pop up
along their line.

Other parts of the Confederate force had not
taken part in the surrender and determined to
fight on, but the realization that they were
alone left them with no alternative but to
surrender as well.

Final casualties from the Battle of Arkansas
Post on the Union side included 134 killed,
808 wounded, and 29 missing in action.
Confederate officers reported 60 killed and
75-80 wounded

The battlefield is preserved today at the
Arkansas Post National Memorial. Forte
Hindman was washed away long ago by the
river but an overlook allows visitors an
excellent view of the Arkansas River and site
of the fort.

Trails lead along surviving sections of the
Confederate rifle pits to cannon displays and
interpretive panels.

The park is also the site of the last battle of
the American Revolution and features a
museum and visitor center, walkways that
lead through the ruins of the forgotten town of
Arkansas Post, reconstructed Revolutionary
War fortifications, a picnic area and more.


Battle of Arkansas Post, 10-11 January 1863 - History

Alarmed by Confederate activities on the Mississippi, General John A. McClernand expressed his concern to President Abraham Lincoln. Although an influential politician from Illinois, McClernand was abrasive, disliked West-Pointers, and to the consternation of his peers, was overly ambitious. McClernand was, however, a fearless man. His vigor and bravery in battle won him the support of President Lincoln. In October, 1862, Lincoln authorized the politician-general to raise a large force for a down-river expedition. [1]

McClernand soon arrived at Milliken's Bend brandishing orders giving him command of 32,000 troops stationed there. The politician-general knew of Blue Wing's fate and realized the threat that Confederate troops posed to Federal communication lines. McClernand decided to divert the troops idle at Milliken's Bend, following their repulse at Chickasaw Bayou near Vicksburg, and capture the Post of Arkansas. To the ambitious McClernand, Arkansas Post was a "boot of the right size." [2]

Figure 35. Northern General John A. McClernand. A brash glory-hunting ex-congressman from Illinois, McClernand considered Post of Arkansas a "boot of the right size." The Century Magazine Dec. 1884.

McClernand reorganized the entire force, calling it the "Army of the Mississippi." The glory-hunting general divided his army into two divisions—the XIII Corps to be commanded by Brigadier General George W. Morgan, and the XV Corps by William T. Sherman. Each corps had two divisions. Brigadier Generals Peter J. Osterhaus and Andrew J. Smith commanded XIII Corps divisions while Brigadier Generals Frederick Steele and David Stuart led the XV Corps divisions. McClernand knew that he would need the help of the navy if his bold undertaking was to be successful. For this he enlisted the aid of Rear Admiral David D. Porter.

On January 5, 1863, 32,000 Union troops on board 60 steamers departed Milliken's Bend with three of Porter's mighty ironclads and a number of lighter tinclad boats. Three days later the fleet steamed past the mouth of the Arkansas River as a deceptive measure and entered the White River. Twenty miles upriver the fleet crossed over to the Arkansas through the old cut-off channel, and approached Arkansas Post.

Figure 36. Rear Admiral David D. Porter. Porter provided amphibious support for the Federal assault on Post of Arkansas. The Century Magazine , April 1885.

The Confederates at Post of Arkansas expected an eventual assault against them but never by a force of this magnitude. Late in the afternoon of January 9, a "round eyed" courier reported to General Churchill that "half the yankees in the west" were coming. [3] The surprised general readied his forces to defend the post and fired-off a dispatch to General Holmes for last minute instructions. The reply Churchill received was: "hold out till help arrives or until all dead." Churchill planned to carry out his instructions "in spirit and letter." [4] As the amphibious force drew near, the greyclad soldiers occupied the rifle-pits. Five companies of infantry were advanced as skirmishers, taking position several hundred yards in front of the main line of defense. Churchill posted Captain William Hart and his six gun Arkansas Battery at the edge of the rifle-pits closest to Post Bayou.

On January 9 at 5:00 p.m., transports carrying Sherman's corps pulled into Frederic Notrebe's landing three miles below the Post of Arkansas. The vessels transporting Morgan's corps tied-up nine miles below at Fletcher's Landing.

On the morning of January 10, the Federal infantry moved up to invest the Confederate position. Sherman's corps landed first. Colonel Lionel A. Sheldon's brigade of Osterhaus' Division moved straight up the river road, followed by Smith's and Stuart's divisions. Colonel David W. Lindsey's brigade of Morgan's corps departed Fletcher's Landing and proceeded to Smith's plantation about two miles above the Post of Arkansas. Here the bluecoats wheeled a section of 10-pounder Parrott rifles into position to prevent southern reinforcements from approaching. Colonel J.F. De Courcy's brigade of Morgan's corps was left just above the landing as a reserve unit. Steele's division had orders to head inland from Notrebe's landing, flank the fort and approach from the opposite direction. After floundering in an impenetrable swamp, however, the column retraced its steps. Steele's Division met Morgan's corps at Notrebe's landing and joined the advance.

The vanguard encountered Confederate skirmishers at the first line of rifle-pits. Theirs was only a delaying action, and the Federal infantry soon occupied the entrenchments. With Sheldon's brigade as pivot, each following brigade fanned-out to the right, creating a scythe-like formation that when completed would confront the Confederate rifle-pits protecting the flank of the fort and extending west to Post Bayou.

Meanwhile, McClernand received an erroneous report that all troops were in position. At 5:30 p.m., he conveyed this information to Porter who initiated bombardment of the Confederate fort. Closing within 400 yards of Post of Arkansas, the ironclads Baron de Kaib , Louisville , and Cincinnati opened fire. Porter soon brought up tinclads Lexington and Black Hawk to augment the destructive shelling. The Confederate gunners gave a good account of themselves, but were no match for the gunboats. When Confederate fire slackened, Porter took advantage of the situation, sending Rattler upriver to enfilade the fort from the opposite side. The unfortunate tinclad became lodged against the piles scarcely 100-yards from the Confederate guns. Before she could disentangle herself, Rattler was raked by Confederate fire. Twilight soon ended the assault. Knowing that an infantry attack would not occur at this late hour, Porter ordered the gunboats to return to their moorings.

Figure 37. The gunboat Baron de Kalb . This craft participated in the battle of the Post of Arkansas. The Century Magazine , Jan. 1885.

By the morning of January 11, the infantry was poised and finally ready to advance. The troops faced the main line of Confederate defense. Union field artillery had been moved into strategic positions. Two 20-pounder Parrott rifles manned by Sheldon's brigade were emplaced only 800 yards from the Post of Arkansas. Lindsey's brigade had shifted two 20-pounder Parrots and two 3-inch rifled guns from Smith's plantation and wheeled them into position on Stillwell's Point opposite the fort. McClernand notified Admiral Porter that all was ready.

At 1 p.m., the navy resumed the bombardment. At the sound of the signal shot, the infantry moved forward. Ironciads Louisville , Baron de Kaib , and Cincinnati joined by tinclads Lexington , Rattler , and Glide steamed up the river and opened fire on the Confederate stronghold. Shelling by the Federal fleet continued relentlessly throughout the afternoon.

The First Wisconsin Battery of Sheldon's brigade opened fire immediately after the signal discharge. The two 20-pounder Parrotts enfiladed the northeast bastion of the fort. The big 9-inch columbiad emplaced there had hampered Porter's efforts the day before. Sheldon's fire was most destructive. After six shots from one of the pieces, the big columbiad fell silent.

By 3 p.m., Sheldon moved his men forward in support of the Chicago Mercantile Battery. Captain Charles G. Cooley of the Mercantile Battery had placed his guns in position behind a rise within 200 yards of the fort. Subjected to a storm of shot and shell, Confederate defenders were quickly driven from the parapet of the fort. Seizing the opportunity to end the battle, Osterhaus ordered the 120th Ohio to storm the fort. With a yell of determination the Buckeyes surged forward only to be pinned down by Confederate fire within pistol shot of the east face of the fort. They remained in this precarious position for the next hour.

Figure 38. Troop positions during the battle of the Post of Arkansas. (click on image for an enlargement in a new window)

Small-arms fire cracked up and down the lines as Union infantry advanced toward the rifle pits. Two 10-pounder Parrotts in Hart's Arkansas Battery proved a firm obstacle to the Union advance. Taking cognizance of this threat, Colonel Charles R. Woods of the 76th Ohio deployed sharpshooters, who inched their way into position. Their deadly fire soon drove Hart's gunners from their pieces.

On the Confederate left, Deshler's line held fast. Twice, Union troops were allowed to advance within 100-yards of the entrenchments before being fired upon. Both times the bluecoats fell back with heavy losses. After two more unsuccessful advances, Brigadier General Charles E. Hovey, commanding the Second brigade of Steele's Division, ordered two 12-pounder Napoleans to the front. Confederate rifles were no match for these big guns. After only two rounds had been fired, white flags began appearing along the Confederate line to Deshler's right.

Figure 39. Bombardment of Post of Arkansas on January 11, 1863. The Arkansas History Commission.

By 4:00 p.m., Union troops had moved within 200 yards of the Confederate line of defense. The big guns in the fort had been silenced. Taking cognizance of this development, Admiral Porter sent two tinclads and the ram Monarch upriver to cut off the Confederate line of retreat. The ironclads began lobbing shells into the rifle pits. By 4:30 p.m., a number of white flags were visible above the Confederate works. Federal troops began crossing over to the enemy lines, disarming the greyclad soldiers. Admiral Porter himself ran the tinclads over to the fort and accompanied by a naval landing party and some infantry, clambered through an open embrasure. For all intents and purposes, the battle of Arkansas Post was won. Confusion still prevailed, however, in the sector defended by Deshler.

Having received no order to do so, Deshler refused to surrender. General Steele advanced to the Confederate line under a flag of truce. The two officers argued for several minutes when from the corner of his eye, Deshler observed that the Union troops had advanced within a pistol shot of his position. The Southern officer shouted at Steele: "If you do not command 'Halt', I will command 'Fire'." [5] Steele stopped his eager soldiers from advancing and the discussion continued. The stalwart Deshler would not surrender without express orders from the lips of General Churchill. It was not until Churchill personally commanded Deshler to surrender that he allowed the Yankees to cross Confederate breastworks.

The Federal attack on Arkansas Post lasted two days, resulting in a Confederate surrender. Union casualties numbered 134 killed, 898 wounded, and 29 missing. Among the Confederates, 60 were killed, 80 wounded, and 4,800 taken prisoner. Strategically, McClernand's campaign contributed little to the goal of capturing Vicksburg. He had at least, denied the Confederates continued use of Arkansas Post as a base for their attacks on Union shipping supplying the Mississippi. Major General Ulyses S. Grant was outraged that McClernand had disappeared into the western wilderness with a "Caesar's half" of the army. He further described McClernand's campaign as "a wild goose chase." McClernand was subsequently relegated to a corps commander and his "Army of the Mississippi" dissolved only two weeks after its constitution. The politician-general accepted the demotion poorly and complained to President Lincoln that "my success . . . is gall and wormwood to the clique of West Pointers who have been persecuting me for months." [6]


General Stephen Burbridge’s Report On His Brigade’s Action at the Battle of Arkansas Post

In January 1863, Major General John A. McClernand led a combined army-navy expedition up the Arkansas River to the Confederate garrison at Arkansas Post, or Fort Hindman. This fort, located 25 miles upriver from where it emptied into the Mississippi River, protected the capitol of Little Rock about 120 miles up the Arkansas from attack by gunboats. It also served as a base of operations for Confederate raids on Union shipping on the Mississippi. Major General Ulysses S. Grant had wanted McClernand to attack Vicksburg, Mississippi, but McClernand decided to attack Arkansas Post instead with his 13th Corps and Major General William T. Sherman’s 15th Corps, about 33,000 men. The naval part of the operation was under the command of Admiral David Porter and included nine gunboats and several transport vessels.

Fort Hindman was garrisoned by about 5000 Confederates, mostly Arkansans and dismounted Texas Cavalry under the command of Brigadier General Thomas J. Churchill. The Union attack began on January 10th with a destructive naval bombardment. This was followed the next day with an infantry assault. Thought vastly outnumbered, Churchill’s command put up stiff resistance to the Union assault and inflicted over 1000 total casualties, including 134 killed, before surrendering the fort on the afternoon of the 11th.

About a third of the Union casualties were suffered by the 1st Brigade of the 13th Corps’ 1st Division. This brigade, under the command of Brigadier General Stephen Burbridge, consisted of the 16th, 60th, and 67th Indiana, 83rd and 96th Ohio, and 23rd Wisconsin infantry regiments. Burbridge himself planted the first U.S. flag in the fort. Here is General Burbridges’ official report on his brigade’s action in the capturing of Arkansas Post.

HEADQUARTERS FIRST BRIGADE,
FIRST DIVISION, THIRTEENTH ARMY CORPS,
ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI,
Post Arkansas, Ark., January 14, 1863.

I have the honor to submit the following report of the part taken by my brigade in the engagement of the 10th and 11th instant, which resulted in the capture of Fort Post Arkansas, together with the whole contending force:

In compliance with orders to that effect my whole command, including the Seventeenth Ohio Battery, disembarked January 10 about 12 m. We moved up the road, having received orders to follow Major-General Sherman’s corps. Their finding the route impracticable returned, and we were ordered to follow the road leading up the river bank, which we did until we reached the first line of outer works of the enemy, which by that time had been evacuated thence we bore to the right through the swamps till within about half a mile of the fort.

About sunset I was ordered to throw my brigade into line of battle. I then found that owing to a misapprehension of orders only one regiment (Sixtieth Indiana Volunteers, commanded by Col. R. Owen) had followed. I immediately sent back orders for the rest of the brigade to move up, and becoming impatient rode back myself and brought them up at doublequick. I ordered the Sixtieth and Sixteenth Indiana to the right and front with the Twenty-third Wisconsin, Col. J. J. Guppey, in their rear as a reserve, with orders to the former two regiments to skirmish well to their front, I ordered the Sixty-seventh Indiana, Colonel Emerson, and Ninety-sixth Ohio, Colonel Vance, on the left, and the Eighty-third Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel Baldwin, in their rear, with the same instructions as those given to the right of the brigade.

The command bivouacked in line almost in direct range of the guns of the fort firing on the gunboats, their shells frequently bursting in our lines and doing some execution. During the night the Sixtieth Indiana captured one company (60 men) of the enemy and sent it to the rear.

At daylight on the 11th instant I moved my command to the right directly in front of’ the fort and in rear of an open field, across which I was ordered to make the assault at the proper time. I formed my command in two lines, with the Sixtieth Indiana, Colonel Owen, on the right the Sixteenth Indiana, Lieutenant-Colonel Orr, center, and the Eighty-third Ohio, Lieutenant Colonel Baldwin, on the left, with instructions to feel well their way to the edge of the open field referred to (across which to the fort was about 400 yards), which they did in gallant style. I placed three pieces of Captain Blount’s (Seventeenth Ohio) battery on my left, having some earthworks thrown up there for its protection, and ordered the Ninety-sixth Ohio to support it.

About 12 m. at a preconcerted signal the gunboats and the batteries along the line opened and kept up a simultaneous and incessant fire, which drew upon us the enemy’s fire. It having been agreed that the signal for the assault should be musketry and cheering from Major-General Sherman’s corps, on our right, I awaited it. The numerical strength of my brigade was 2,400 men.

About 1 p.m. Colonel Parsons, aide to General McClernand, came with the information that the enemy were moving, in column closed in mass, up the river, and it was the impression that they were retreating, and that I should be ready for storming the works. Hearing the cheering and musketry on my right I ordered my front line to advance, which was done under a most murderous fire of musketry, shell, round shot, and grape and canister. Observing that my line was somewhat wavering under such a destructive fire, especially my right and left–the right having received an exceedingly heavy fire from one of our own regiments on my right–I marched up my other three regiments to their relief. The three front regiments refused to be relieved, and supported by the three relieving regiments the whole went forward with great resolution and most unflinchingly, driving the enemy from the houses in front of their works and maintaining that position themselves.

Finding there was an open space on my right, between my troops and those of General Sherman, I had it occupied by the Twenty-third Wisconsin, which most nobly held its position. On my left I extended the length of my line by throwing into that position the Sixty-seventh Indiana, under Colonel Emerson, who was wounded while gallantly leading and urging on his men.

The colonel (Lucas) of the Sixteenth Indiana being on the steamer J. C. Snow, too sick to go out, his regiment was commanded by Lieut. Col. John M. Orr, who was severely wounded in the head by a piece of shell while gallantly leading on his men, when they were within 30 yards of the outer works. After Lieutenant-Colonel Orr was wounded Colonel Lucas came out, and was in command of the regiment when the fort surrendered. Major Redfield deserves great credit for his skill and bravery displayed during the whole time, and particularly while in command a short time before Colonel Lucas arrived. Lieutenant Colonel Templeton, Sixtieth Indiana, was also wounded while in the heroic discharge of his duty.

Finding we were pressed hard on our right, I sent to Colonel Landram, commanding Second Brigade, First Division, asking for re-enforcements, his brigade being held in reserve. He promptly sent me the Nineteenth Kentucky and Ninety-seventh Illinois, commanded respectively by Lieut. Col. John Cowan and Col. F. S. Rutherford. I ordered the Nineteenth Kentucky to relieve the Twenty-third Wisconsin, which they did with the coolness and courage of veteran troops, almost silencing the fire of the enemy in the rifle-pits in their front. It is due to Colonel Cowan to say he handled his regiment in a manner which enlisted the heartiest praise from General Smith, Colonel Landram, and myself, all of whom witnessed the conduct of the regiment, as commanded by Colonel Cowan. The Ninety-seventh Illinois was held in reserve for awhile, but afterward fought most gallantly in front, though somewhat under protection of a clump of woods which lay close to the right of the fort.

My whole command was under heavy fire for three and a half hours, and the greater part had to make the assault through an open, marshy field, where the enemy had a full and fair range with grape-shot and musketry. I cannot say too much in praise of the officers and men under my command they all did all I could ask of them, and stormed one of the strongest of the enemy’s works like veteran regiments.

It is proper to say that but one of my regiments had ever been under fire. Colonel Landram was frequently with me during the day, and we often consulted together. In my opinion he managed his brigade with great skill, judgment, and bravery, being everywhere his presence was needed, rendering me great assistance by his counsel and promptitude in re-enforcing me at a critical time. Capt. A. N. Keigwin, acting assistant adjutant-general Lieut. T. J. Elliott, aide.de-camp, and Lieut. M. T. Kirk, Sixth Missouri Cavalry also Lieut. M. Whilldin, my ordnance officer, and Major Livingston, volunteer aide-de-camp, and now chief of police, Army of the Mississippi, rendered me great service, delivering orders to my regiments when shells, grape, and musket balls rained like hail in a storm. Capt. A. A. Blount, Seventeenth Ohio Battery, rendered great service, annoying the enemy and frequently diverting his fire from our advancing columns.

Before the surrender one of Captain Blount’s pieces was ordered to the front and did great execution, General Smith frequently sighting the gun himself. The Sixteenth Indiana was the first regiment in the fort, followed by the Eighty-third Ohio, who were the first to place their regimental colors on the enemy’s works. The balance of my command were soon within the works.

As I approached the entrance of the fort the guard presented bayonets and stated that they had not surrendered. I told him that they had fought gallantly, but were whipped, and I demanded a surrender. They dropped their arms and bid me enter, which I did, and hoisted the first national flag. The general commanding (Churchill) surrendered the fort to me in person. It is but justice to say that Major Montgomery, Sixth Missouri Cavalry, was next after me in the fort, followed by Colonel Lucas, Sixteenth Indiana Capt. A. N. Keigwin and Lieut. Thomas J. Elliott, both of my staff.

The list of killed and wounded of my command, which I herewith submit, shows that each of my regiments was in the hottest part of the fight and did its duty nobly. I may here mention that my escort (part of the Tenth Kentucky Cavalry) behaved well, and were never found wanting in the hour of need. I can say no more. It is sufficient that it was a hard-fought battle and a complete success. All I have to regret is the loss of the brave dead and wounded who fell gallantly fighting for our glorious old Union.

I remain, with great respect, your obedient servant,

S. G. BURBRIDGE,
Brigadeiro-general.

Lieut. J. HOUGH,
Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, First Division.

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies in the War of the Rebellion, Series 1, Volume XVII, Part 1.

General Grant believed the Arkansas Post expedition was an unnecessary use of military resources at a time when he was focused on capturing Vicksburg. Nonetheless, the operation resulted in the capture of approximately 4700 Confederate soldiers and eliminated the strongest defensive point on the Arkansas River. Attacks on Union shipping on the Mississippi from the Arkansas were reduced.

General Burbridge had previously fought at Shiloh and would be in the field throughout the rest of the Vicksburg Campaign. A native Kentuckian, Burbridge was given command of the District of Kentucky in 1864. He was more successful commanding troops in the field than he was as an administrator his heavy handed, draconian rule made him a hated figure by the population of his home state. Burbridge was relieved of his command in January 1865.


Battle of Arkansas Post (January 9–11, 1863)

After the Union successes at the Battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson, the Federals turned their attention to the Mississippi River. If the Union could gain control of the Mississippi, the Confederacy would be denied easy access to supplies from the Gulf of Mexico and territories in the American West. Admiral David Farragut captured the port city of New Orleans, Louisiana on May 18, 1862, closing down Confederate access to the Gulf. In June, the Union tightened its grip on the Mississippi River when Federal forces captured the river city of Memphis, Tennessee. Nevertheless, the South still controlled traffic on much of the river because of its strong fortifications at Vicksburg, Mississippi.

Vicksburg is located on the eastern side of the Mississippi, south of the mouth of the Yazoo River. The city was known as "The Gibraltar of the Confederacy" because it is situated on a high bluff overlooking a horseshoe-shaped bend in the river. The bluff upon which the city sits made it nearly impossible to assault from the river. Farragut made two attempts to do so in May and June 1862, but both efforts failed. To the north, nearly impenetrable swamps and bayous protected Vicksburg. To the east, a ring of forts mounting 172 guns shielded the city from an overland assault. The land on the Louisiana side of the river, opposite Vicksburg, was rough, etched with poor roads and many streams.

In July 1862, General Henry Halleck was called to Washington and promoted to chief of all Union armies, leaving Major General Ulysses S. Grant in charge of operations in the Western Theater. In December, Grant divided his Army of the Tennessee into two wings and launched his first attempt to capture Vicksburg. Grant ordered Major General William T. Sherman, commanding the right wing of his army, to travel down the Mississippi River and attempt to assault Vicksburg from the north. Sherman's 30,000 Federals were badly defeated by 13,000 Confederate defenders at the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou (December 26-29, 1862).

After the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou, Major General John A. McClernand replaced Sherman as commander of the right wing of the Army of the Tennessee. McClernand was a Democratic politician from Southern Illinois who raised a brigade of volunteers at the beginning of the Civil War and served under Grant during the early Union victories in Tennessee. McClernand was also an ambitious man who was well connected with fellow Illinoisan President Abraham Lincoln. In October 1862, McClernand used his political influence to gain authorization from Secretary of War Edwin Stanton to raise an army for an expedition against Vicksburg. Because he had more seniority than Sherman, McClernand was able to take Sherman's command, combine it with the army he raised, and rename it the Army of the Mississippi.

After assuming Sherman's command, McClernand launched an attack on Fort Hindman, near Arkansas Post, rather than assault Vicksburg, as he had told Stanton he was going to do. The Confederates constructed Fort Hindman on the Arkansas River in 1862, to discourage an attack on the Arkansas capital at Little Rock and to serve as a base for disrupting Union traffic on the Mississippi River. Grant and other Union generals did not consider the fort and Brigadier General Thomas J. Churchill's 5,500-man garrison enough of a threat to distract them from their main objective of capturing Vicksburg. In late December 1862, however, Rebels operating out of Fort Hindman captured a Federal steamer on the Mississippi. McClernand, eager for a victory of any sort, considered that enough provocation to divert the 33,000 soldiers under his command, plus Flag Officer David D. Porter's Mississippi naval fleet, to subdue the fort.

On January 9, 1863, thousands of Union soldiers began disembarking from troop ships and advanced up the Arkansas River toward Fort Hindman. Led by Sherman, the Federals quickly overran the outnumbered Rebels, forcing them back into the fort. The next day, Porter's naval fleet moved into position and bombarded the fort. On January 11, McClernand's artillery joined in with another barrage, effectively silencing the defenders' remaining big guns. As the infantry prepared for an attack, Porter's fleet moved upstream to prevent a Rebel retreat. Hoping for reinforcements, Churchill ordered the Confederate garrison to defend the fort at all costs, but when McClernand's infantry advanced, some of the Rebels realized that their situation was hopeless. About 4:30 in the afternoon, defenders on one side of the fort began raising white flags of surrender. Unaware of the white flags, soldiers on the other side of the fort fired on Federals who exposed themselves in response to the flags of truce. Eventually, the situation was resolved inside of the fort and white flags were raised on both sides.

Losses at the Battle of Arkansas Post were moderate. The Federals suffered a little over 1,000 casualties, including 134 killed. On the Confederate side, 709 soldiers were killed and nearly 4,800 surrendered, almost one-fourth of the total Rebel armed forces stationed in Arkansas. In addition, the Union soldiers commandeered Confederate arms, ammunition and other supplies before razing Fort Hindman. The Battle of Arkansas Post contributed little, if anything, toward the success of the Vicksburg Campaign, but it did eliminate a minor impediment to Union shipping on the Mississippi River.

Ohio units that participated in the Battle of Arkansas Post included:

Infantry units:

  • 16th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 42nd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 48th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 54th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 57th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 58th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 76th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 83rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 96th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 114th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry
  • 120th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

Artillery units:

  • 4th Ohio Artillery Battery
  • 8th Ohio Light Artillery Battery
  • 17th Ohio Light Artillery Battery

City class ironclad ship:

After the battle, McClernand informed Sherman and Porter that he intended to mount an excursion up the Arkansas River to assault Little Rock. Grant, however, was unimpressed with McClernand's victory and considered it a diversion from the real task at hand. He countermanded McClernand's plans and ordered him to rejoin the Union campaign against Vicksburg. McClernand complied and was relegated to a corps commander throughout the remainder of the campaign after Grant disbanded the Army of the Mississippi and returned its troops to the Army of the Tennessee.


Assista o vídeo: University of Arkansas Band warm up before homecoming parade on 101113 (Pode 2022).