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Captura de Sanduíche, junho de 1460


Captura de Sanduíche, junho de 1460

A captura de Sandwich (junho de 1460) foi um sucesso Yorkista chave que permitiu aos condes exilados de Salisbury, Warwick e March invadirem a Inglaterra de sua base em Calais no início da campanha que terminou com a grande vitória dos Yorkistas em Northampton.

Em 1459, os Lancastrianos decidiram agir contra os Yorkistas e acusaram Richard Neville, conde de Salisbury, Richard Neville, conde de Warwick e Richard, conde de York, de traição. Ao contrário de 1455, o tribunal também fez preparativos militares e, portanto, quando os Yorkistas formaram um exército, eles estavam em menor número. Em Ludford Bridge (12-13 de outubro de 1459), os comandantes yorkistas seniores, percebendo que estavam em menor número, decidiram fugir, abandonando seu exército. York escapou para a Irlanda, enquanto Salisbury, Warwick e o conde de março de York (o futuro Eduardo IV) escaparam para Calais. Essa era a base do poderio militar de Warwick, embora a deserção de parte da guarnição de Calais em Ludford Bridge tenha contribuído para o colapso do Yorkist.

Nos meses seguintes, a maior parte da luta se concentrou em Calais e Sandwich. Henry Beaufort, duque de Somerset, filho do duque de Somerset morto na Primeira Batalha de St. Albans, foi enviado para tomar Calais. Ele foi incapaz de tomar o porto, mas se estabeleceu no castelo de Guines. Uma frota Lancastriana foi reunida em Sandwich, mas em 15 de janeiro de 1460 uma força Yorkista sob o comando de John Dinham capturou esta frota, junto com Richard Woodville, Earl Rivers, o comandante da guarnição. Após este sucesso Warwick partiu para a Irlanda, onde se encontrou com York e os dois homens bolaram um plano para uma invasão em duas frentes da Inglaterra. Uma frota de Lancastrian não conseguiu interceptar Warwick quando ele retornou a Calais, e o plano logo foi colocado em prática.

No início de junho de 1460, Sandwich foi defendido por uma força de 200 arqueiros e 200 homens de armas, comandados por Sir Osbert Mountfort. Essa força estava se preparando para cruzar o canal para se juntar a Somerset em Guines.

A força de ataque foi liderada por William Neville Lord Fauconberg, John Wenlock e John Dinham. Sua força cruzou para Sandwich no início de junho e, após uma dura luta, capturou a cidade. Mountfort foi levado de volta para Calais, onde, como leal apoio de Somerset, foi executado. Fauconberg permaneceu em Sandwich com a maior parte do grupo de invasão yorkista. Em 26 de junho, Warwick, Salisbury e março juntaram-se a ele com cerca de 2.000 homens. Esta pequena força Yorkist ganhou força ao passar por Kent. Eles foram admitidos em Londres, onde os comandantes de Lancastrian recuaram para a Torre de Londres, e então continuaram para o norte. Em 10 de julho de 1460, os Lancastrianos, em menor número, foram derrotados na batalha de Northampton. Vários líderes Lancastrianos importantes foram mortos e Henrique VI foi capturado. No momento, os Yorkistas pareciam estar em ascendência.

Livros sobre a Idade Média - Índice de assuntos: Guerra das Rosas


Esta importante batalha ocorreu em 10 de julho de 1460 e levou à captura de Henrique VI. O conde de Warwick e o conde de março (ele mais tarde se tornaria Eduardo IV) desembarcou em Sandwich em junho de 1460 após navegar de Calais para a Inglaterra. Warwick finalmente marchou para o norte para interceptar um exército Lancastrian que estava a caminho do sul para Coventry e era liderado pelo rei Henrique VI.

Os Lancastrianos souberam desse plano e decidiram parar na cidade de Northampton e criar uma posição defensiva. Em vez de atacar imediatamente quando chegasse à cidade, Warwick queria um acordo de paz e esperava falar com o rei. Depois de conversas infrutíferas, os Yorkistas lançaram seu ataque.

Como mencionei na introdução, a traição foi uma característica da Guerra das Rosas e mostrou sua cara feia em Northampton. Lord Gray estava comandando uma seção do exército do rei, mas quando enfrentou Warwick na batalha, ordenou que seus homens deponham as armas e deixem os Yorkistas passarem.

Se Lord Gray não tivesse feito isso, é provável que a Batalha de Northampton teria sido sangrenta, já que a força combinada dos dois exércitos era de cerca de 30.000. Em vez disso, todo o conflito acabou em cerca de meia hora quando Warwick capturou o rei e matou vários nobres Lancastrianos importantes. Vários soldados de infantaria lancastrianos tentaram escapar pelo rio Nenê, mas ele estava transbordando e muitos deles morreram afogados. Essas mortes representaram a maior parte das baixas, que totalizaram apenas centenas. A propósito, Gray mudou de lado porque os Yorkistas ofereceram apoio em uma disputa de propriedade que ele estava tendo!

Parecia que a guerra havia acabado agora que o rei havia sido capturado, mas sua rainha, Margaret de Anjou, tinha outras idéias enquanto montava um exército no País de Gales.


Criado em 3 de outubro de 2003 | Atualizado em 11 de fevereiro de 2013

No início da Primeira Guerra das Rosas, a facção Yorkista queria resgatar Henrique VI de maus conselheiros e dar um bom governo à Inglaterra. No entanto, a guerra terminou com aquele rei um prisioneiro deposto. Esta é a história de como isso aconteceu.

A Primeira Batalha de St Albans

O exército liderado pelo duque de York e os condes de Salisbury e Warwick enfrentou aquele levantado pelo rei Henrique e os duques de Somerset e Buckingham na cidade de St Albans. O que aconteceu lá foi estranho - mais uma escaramuça nas ruas do que uma verdadeira batalha aberta. A luta, que durou apenas meia hora, foi, no entanto, furiosa. A vitória foi inquestionavelmente para os Yorkistas. Buckingham e o rei foram capturados, ambos sofrendo ferimentos. O melhor de tudo, do ponto de vista de York, era que seu antigo inimigo, Somerset, morrera na luta. Por fim, depois de anos de ameaças, um finalmente destruiu o outro.

O cativo Henry foi levado de volta a Londres, e York foi restaurado como protetor. Mais uma vez, York iniciou uma campanha de reforma. Mais uma vez, ele falhou. Seus planos, juntamente com sua arrogância, alienaram muitos homens poderosos e, no início de 1456, ele foi novamente afastado do protetorado. Mas ele permaneceu poderoso o suficiente para que Warwick fosse nomeado capitão de Calais. Margaret, enquanto isso, fora impelida pela hostilidade popular a deixar Londres com o príncipe Eduardo. Mais tarde, Henry foi capaz de se juntar a eles. Isso efetivamente mudou a corte real para Coventry.

Mas o governo estava agora em êxtase, com o aumento da desordem. Um ataque francês conseguiu até incendiar a cidade de Sandwich. Warwick estava financiando sua guarnição em Calais por meio da pirataria. Margaret o chamou para a Inglaterra, com o objetivo de substituí-lo pelo novo duque de Somerset. Houve uma briga no tribunal e Warwick fugiu de volta para Calais. Isso foi em 1458, e Margaret já havia algum tempo levantado tropas contra os Yorkistas. A guerra estava prestes a explodir novamente.

Guerra in Earnest

Com Margaret e Somerset recrutando tropas, os Yorkistas começaram a se armar para se defender. York estava em sua sede em Ludlow e Salisbury em Middleham, um pouco distante. Eles tiveram que unir forças contra os lancastrianos. Warwick conseguiu ir de Calais a Ludlow com suas tropas, mas Salisbury foi interceptado pelos Lancastrians em Blore Heath na fronteira galesa. A batalha resultante foi uma das surpresas da guerra. Em grande desvantagem numérica, Salisbury conseguiu, por nada mais do que táticas inteligentes, para vencer. Não foi o principal exército de Lancastrian que ele derrotou, mas o levou a Ludlow.

Este foi um falso amanhecer. Os Lancastrianos produziram um golpe de mestre - reforços liderados pelo próprio Henrique VI. Os Yorkistas não desejavam lutar contra o rei e estavam em grande desvantagem numérica. Muitos soldados não lutariam. Os líderes Yorkistas os abandonaram. York fugiu para a Irlanda e Salisbury, Warwick e o filho adolescente de York, o conde de March, para Calais. Os lancastrianos, enquanto isso, marcharam para Ludlow.

A guerra agora girava em torno das tentativas de Somerset de expulsar Warwick de Calais. Ele foi singularmente malsucedido, de modo que Warwick pôde visitar York na Irlanda. A rainha Margaret governava a Inglaterra avarentosamente, e Warwick sabia o quão impopular ela havia se tornado. Em seu retorno a Calais, Warwick derrotou uma frota de Lancastrian. O canal agora era dele. Em junho de 1460, os seguidores de Warwick capturaram Sandwich. Uma invasão yorkista agora era inevitável.

Warwick, Salisbury, março e 2000 tropas desembarcaram em 26 de junho. Warwick era muito popular em Kent, e as pessoas o procuravam. Quando ele chegou a Londres, ele tinha algo em torno de 40.000 homens. Londres abriu seus portões. Os lordes yorkistas então juraram que assumiriam o controle de Henrique VI e encerrariam a festa no tribunal de uma vez por todas. Salisbury sitiou a Torre Warwick e March dirigiu-se para oeste, na esperança de se encontrar com York.

O exército Lancastriano, liderado por Buckingham, teve como objetivo detê-los. Os dois exércitos se encontraram perto de Northampton. O jovem March liderou o ataque à posição real - aparentemente uma jogada arriscada. Mas Warwick havia conspirado com o lorde Grey de Lancastrian, que se tornou um traidor. Os Yorkistas, portanto, não tiveram problemas em ficar atrás das linhas reais e a batalha acabou antes de começar. Buckingham foi um dos poucos mortos. Melhor de tudo, para os Yorkistas, o Rei estava agora em suas mãos.

A Radicalização de York

Warwick e March levaram Henry para Londres, o tempo todo expressando lealdade a ele. Logo depois que eles chegaram, a Torre caiu para Salisbury. York agora voltou para se juntar a eles. Mas algo estava estranho em seu progresso pelo País de Gales e pela Inglaterra. Ele estava usando o padrão real sem quaisquer acréscimos.

Sem dúvida, York já havia decidido que suas tentativas de controlar o rei sempre seriam desfeitas. Ele agora estava encorajado - ele invocaria a reivindicação de Mortimer e tentaria depor Henrique VI. Em 7 de outubro de 1460, York chegou ao Parlamento. Lá, ele formalmente apresentou sua reivindicação ao trono.

Até os Earls Yorkist ficaram chocados. Como eles poderiam apoiá-lo agora, tendo jurado fidelidade a Henrique VI? A Câmara dos Lordes discutiu a reivindicação seriamente. Eles preferiam amplamente o governo yorkista ao governo lancastriano, mas também preferiam Henry a York. Além disso, o depoimento era um passo grande demais. No entanto, não havia dúvida de uma coisa - York fez tem a reivindicação mais forte. Eventualmente, os Lordes propuseram um meio-termo. York seria oficialmente declarado herdeiro de Henrique, e Henrique permaneceria rei pelo resto de sua vida. Henrique estava tão fraco que consentiu na deserdação de seu próprio filho. Isso não era ideal para York - afinal, ele era dez anos mais velho que Henry -, mas era o melhor que iria conseguir.

Uma coroa de papel

A rainha Margaret não permitiria que seu filho fosse deserdado. Ela declarou que marcharia sobre Londres, e os senhores de Lancastrian, inchados por neutros indignados com o acordo, reuniram um exército. York e Salisbury levaram um exército ao norte para enfrentá-lo, deixando Warwick no comando da capital. Era inverno, então York e Salisbury decidiram descansar durante o Natal no Castelo Sandal de York, perto de Wakefield. Enquanto ele estava lá, o exército de Lancastrian muito superior se reuniu em torno do Castelo Sandal. York simplesmente decidiu esperar por reforços.

Talvez estivessem em busca de comida, ou talvez fosse um truque, mas York deixou Sandal em 30 de dezembro de 1460. O exército de Somerset caiu sobre eles. Os Yorkists foram cercados e abatidos. O próprio York foi morto na batalha. Salisbury foi capturado e executado logo depois, juntando assim suas terras às de seu filho Warwick, que agora era o proprietário de terras mais poderoso da Inglaterra. O filho de York, o conde de Rutland, de dezessete anos, foi assassinado pelo lorde Clifford de Lancaster pouco depois. A cabeça de York acabou nos portões da cidade que compartilhava seu nome, usando uma coroa de papel zombeteiro.

A segunda batalha de St Albans

Os Lancastrians marcharam para o sul de Wakefield. Warwick, sabendo do desastre de Wakefield, reuniu um novo exército e marchou para o norte para enfrentá-los. Warwick montou suas tropas em St Albans, onde os Lancastrians atacaram. Estava claro agora que o comportamento político havia degenerado muito, já que nenhuma tentativa foi feita por nenhum dos lados para evitar a batalha. E, mais uma vez, foi a traição que se revelou decisiva. A batalha foi longa e difícil, e o aliado de Warwick, Lord Lovelace, se conteve. Quando ele entrou, foi do lado lancastriano.

As tropas de Warwick perderam o ânimo com o cair da noite. Muitos fugiram. Quando tudo estava escuro, Warwick percebeu que continuar lutando significaria apenas fazer com que mais soldados - e talvez ele próprio - morressem. Com tantos homens quanto pôde reunir, ele se retirou para a noite. O próprio Henrique VI foi encontrado sentado sob uma árvore após a batalha. Ele estava agora reunido com sua família.

A Segunda Batalha de St. Albans abriu o caminho para Londres para os Lancastrianos. Parecia que a guerra estava vencida. Na verdade, ainda havia dois problemas a serem resolvidos - chegar a Londres e o fato de March, agora duque de York, ainda estar foragido.

De novo duque a novo rei

O conde de March estava em seu castelo em Shrewsbury quando soube da morte de seu pai York e do irmão Rutland. Agora o próprio duque de York, ele reuniu um novo exército nas proximidades de Welsh Marches, para fazer seu próprio movimento em Londres. Ainda bem que ele fez isso, já que Jasper Twdwr, conde de Pembroke e meio-irmão de Henrique VI, liderava um exército para se juntar às principais forças lancastrianas. York jurou conhecê-lo.

Os dois exércitos se encontraram em um vilarejo chamado Cruz de Mortimer em 14 de fevereiro de 1461. O que se seguiu foi uma das batalhas mais sangrentas da Guerra das Rosas. Os lancastrianos tentaram atacar o exército de York. Eles quebraram sua asa direita, mas o resto se manteve firme. Eventualmente, os arqueiros de York fizeram a diferença. Os Lancastrians romperam as fileiras e Pembroke fugiu. York capturou o pai de Pembroke, Owen Twdwr - padrasto de Henrique VI - e o matou, vingando seu próprio pai.

Warwick e seus homens estavam fugindo de St Albans. Os dois exércitos yorkistas se encontraram em Cotswolds e tentaram chegar a Londres antes dos Lancastrians da rainha Margaret.

Margaret estava tendo dificuldade para entrar em Londres. Os cidadãos temiam seu exército, pois consistia principalmente de nortistas. A pilhagem deles em St. Albans não fez nada para tranquilizar os londrinos, que mantinham os portões da cidade firmemente fechados. À medida que as tropas de Margaret saqueavam cada vez mais, a determinação dos londrinos se fortalecia. No final, Margaret recuou, na esperança de persuadir os londrinos a confiar nela.

E então ela perdeu sua chance. York e Warwick chegaram a Londres em 27 de fevereiro. Eles foram autorizados a entrar diretamente, para as boas-vindas dos heróis. A natureza da guerra havia mudado, e a própria ideia de Henrique permanecer como rei era agora um anátema para os Yorkistas. York e Warwick declararam ao Parlamento que, ao se juntar a Margaret, Henry violou o acordo do ano anterior. Desta vez, o Parlamento e o povo de Londres concordaram prontamente. Em 3 de março de 1461, o duque de York foi oficialmente proclamado rei Eduardo IV.

Assim começou a regra da casa de York. Mas o rei Henrique e a rainha Margaret depostos estavam soltos, com um exército formidável. Eduardo IV jurou que não seria coroado até que fossem verdadeiramente esmagados.

The Towton Campaign

Ao saber de seu depoimento, Henry e Margaret fugiram para suas fortalezas no norte e começaram a reunir o maior exército que podiam. De Londres, Eduardo IV fez o mesmo. Ele partiu para o Norte em 13 de março com um enorme exército, que cresceu à medida que avançava. É possível que os exércitos rivais, em seu máximo, compreendessem 2% de toda a população inglesa. Os lancastrianos se posicionaram bloqueando o caminho para York.

Seguiu-se uma série de escaramuças entre destacamentos dos dois exércitos, em um dos quais Eduardo teve o prazer de ouvir que Clifford fora dolorosamente morto por uma flecha quebrada. Mas o que Edward queria era uma batalha direta entre os dois exércitos. Em 29 de março, ele realizou seu desejo. Em um prado perto da aldeia de Towton, durante uma nevasca, ocorreu a batalha mais sangrenta já travada em solo britânico.

Os arqueiros de Lancastrian abriram a batalha, mas, cegos pela neve, eles geralmente erraram seus alvos. Os arqueiros yorkistas não tiveram esse problema. Percebendo seu erro, os lancastrianos atacaram. Os Yorkists responderam, e por duas horas a carnificina aumentou. Somente no final do dia o exército de Eduardo parecia estar vencendo e, naquele momento, foi reforçado por tropas de Norfolk. Os lancastrianos romperam as fileiras e fugiram. Muitos foram abatidos pela perseguição de Yorkists ou morreram afogados nos rios próximos. Ao final da batalha, a estrada de Towton a York estava coberta de neve vermelha. O número de mortos pode ter chegado a 40.000.

Henry e Margaret escaparam para lutar outro dia, mas agora eram fugitivos desesperados. Apenas o extremo norte permaneceu aberto para eles. Eduardo havia destruído seu exército e poderia retornar vitorioso a Londres. Ele foi coroado em 28 de junho de 1461.

O 'Último' de Lancaster

Margaret agora começou a planejar uma intervenção estrangeira para lutar na guerra, aliando-se à França e à Escócia. Os escoceses invadiram no final de maio, mas foram derrotados por Warwick. Edward, entretanto, começou a capturar os castelos de Pembroke no País de Gales, de modo que até o final do ano, apenas Harlech permaneceu nas mãos de Lancastrian.

Em 1462, Margaret planejou uma invasão francesa. Eduardo soube disso e organizou uma frota para enfrentá-lo. O rei Luís parecia meio indiferente em seu apoio, enviando apenas um exército simbólico. Margaret desembarcou em Northumberland. No início, ela teve algum sucesso, mas Warwick logo retomou os castelos que ela conquistou. A maior ameaça era uma invasão escocesa, então Warwick precisava dos castelos intactos. Foi a diplomacia, e não a força, que lhe permitiu retomá-los.

Eduardo adotou a política de cortejar seus antigos inimigos, para congelar Margaret. Ele certamente parecia ter convertido Somerset, que entrou em Londres ao lado dele em fevereiro de 1463. Eduardo também organizou encontros com a Borgonha e a França.

Neste ponto, a traição de Sir Ralph Percy permitiu que os Lancastrianos retomassem os castelos do norte. Os escoceses invadiram. Warwick os derrotou e Edward planejou uma invasão. Antes de partir, porém, ele mudou de ideia. Ele não se preocuparia com as fortalezas lancastrianas antes de tê-las isolado diplomaticamente.

O tratado com a França foi arranjado para durar até outubro de 1464. Enquanto isso, Lord Montagu foi enviado ao norte para recolher enviados escoceses para levar a York. No final de abril de 1464, no extremo norte da Inglaterra, ele foi atacado por forças comandadas pelos traidores Percy e Somerset. Montagu venceu e Percy foi morto. Quando Edward chegou a York, Montagu venceu novamente, desta vez derrotando e capturando Somerset na batalha de Hexham em 15 de maio. Somerset foi executado logo depois, e um agradecido Eduardo fez de Montagu Conde de Northumberland.

O tratado com a Escócia foi assinado em 1º de junho, com uma trégua de três anos. Northumberland agora era capaz de lidar com os três castelos de Lancastrian. No final do mês, tudo havia caído. Margaret e o príncipe Edward escaparam de volta para a França. Henrique permaneceu escondido em casas seguras no norte da Inglaterra, mas foi traído em julho de 1465 e levado para Londres como prisioneiro na Torre.

Apenas o castelo Harlech, no noroeste do País de Gales, permaneceu nas mãos dos Lancastrianos. Um lugar gigantesco, de fato resistiu até 1468, mas nessa época, as coisas quase não importavam. Com a captura de Henrique VI, a primeira Guerra das Rosas acabou na realidade. Quando Harlech caiu, porém, as nuvens de uma segunda guerra já estavam se formando.


Batalha de Northampton

10 de julho de 1460, as forças de Henrique VI assumiram uma posição defensiva em Northampton. Eles estavam no terreno da Abadia de Delapre, de costas para o rio Nene. Uma vala cheia de água na frente deles com estacas no topo. O exército de defesa tinha cerca de 5.000 homens, consistindo principalmente de soldados. Os lancastrianos também tinham alguma artilharia de campanha.

Às duas horas da tarde, os Yorkistas avançaram, enquanto se aproximavam dos Lancastrianos. O conde de Warwick foi recebido por uma violenta chuva de flechas. O resultado das flechas foi que eles tornaram os canhões de Lancastrian inúteis.

“Yorkist Gunnes” e # 8211 Battle of Northampton 1460, de Matthew Ryan

O conde de Warwick alcançou o flanco esquerdo de Lancastrian, comandado por Edmund Gray, 4º Barão Ruthin. Lorde Gray mandou seus homens deporem as armas e permitir que os Yorkistas tivessem acesso fácil ao acampamento além. Esta traição foi o resultado de uma mensagem secreta de Lord Gray ao Conde de March.

O conde de Warwick ordenou a seus homens que não atacassem aqueles que usavam o cajado preto e esfarrapado de Lord Gray & # 8217s. Depois disso, a batalha durou apenas trinta minutos. Os defensores não conseguiram manobrar dentro das fortificações. Eles fugiram do campo quando sua linha foi rompida pelos atacantes Yorkistas.

Morte do Conde de Shrewsbury na Batalha de Northampton em 1460

Humphrey Stafford, 1º Duque de Buckingham, John Talbot, 2º Conde de Shrewsbury, Thomas Percy, 1º Barão Egremont e John Beaumont & # 8211 1º Visconde Beaumont foram mortos. Eles estavam tentando salvar o Henrique IV dos Yorkistas fechando sua tenda. Trezentos outros lancastrianos foram mortos na batalha.


Conteúdo

Eustace, o Monge, pertenceu a uma ordem monástica, mas quebrou seus votos e se tornou um pirata junto com seus irmãos e amigos. Seus primeiros sucessos neste empreendimento atraíram muitos homens sem lei e seus piratas se tornaram uma ameaça à navegação no Canal da Mancha. & # 911 & # 93 Os oponentes ingleses de Eustace atribuíram ao homem "engenhosidade diabólica". & # 912 e # 93

De 1205 a 1208, Eustace trabalhou para o rei João I da Inglaterra. Com a bênção do soberano inglês, ele conquistou as Ilhas do Canal e foi autorizado a mantê-las para John, & # 913 & # 93, enquanto usava Winchelsea como sua base inglesa. & # 914 & # 93 Em 1212, Eustace mudou sua aliança para a França e foi expulso da Inglaterra. O ano de 1215 viu seus navios transportando máquinas de guerra para os barões ingleses que se opunham a John. Quando o Príncipe Louis partiu para Londres, ele viajou na frota de Eustace. & # 915 & # 93 Foi graças à ajuda de Eustace que Louis conseguiu capturar Londres e os Ports Cinque rapidamente. & # 911 & # 93 Depois que seus tenentes foram duramente derrotados na Batalha de Lincoln em 20 de maio de 1217, o Príncipe Louis ergueu o cerco ao Castelo de Dover e retirou-se para Londres. Sinalizando sua disposição de negociar o fim da luta, ele concordou em se encontrar em Brentford com adeptos do rei-menino Henrique III da Inglaterra. O vencedor de Lincoln, William Marshal, 1º Conde de Pembroke e Louis chegaram perto de um acordo. No entanto, para perdoar os bispos que aderiram à causa de Luís, a aquiescência do papa Honório III foi necessária. Como isso não foi possível sem uma longa viagem a Roma, as negociações fracassaram. Luís recebeu a notícia de que reforços e suprimentos logo chegariam da França. Encorajado, ele resolveu continuar lutando. & # 916 e # 93


Alianças começam a se desenvolver

Sérvia foi culpado por Áustria por este assassinato. A Sérvia ficava perto da Bósnia e encorajou a Gangue da Mão Negra dando-lhes armas. A esperança de que Sérvia e Bósnia se unissem para formar um novo estado.

A Áustria decidiu que a Sérvia deveria ser punida e planejou invadir. Sérvia chamou seu velho amigo Rússia para ajudá-la.

A Rússia tinha um grande exército e a Áustria não teria sido capaz de lidar com um austro-russo. Então, a Áustria pediu Alemanha para ajuda. O governo alemão concordou com isso, mas sua resposta incomodou o governo francês.

Secretamente, o governo alemão já havia criado um plano para derrotar França em 6 semanas antes de lutar contra a Rússia. Este plano envolvia um ataque à França via Bélgica.

Grã-Bretanha tinha dado à Bélgica uma garantia em 1839 de que se alguém a atacasse, a Grã-Bretanha atacaria o atacante.


The Richard III Society

A Sociedade Ricardo III foi fundada para promover pesquisas sobre a vida e a época de Ricardo III, confiante de que o debate fundamentado e a pesquisa escrupulosa revelariam um caráter muito diferente da caricatura maligna da propaganda Tudor. Essa crença tem se mostrado bem fundada.

Dos seis principais 'crimes' imputados a Ricardo III por Shakespeare, agora é amplamente aceito que Ricardo era certamente inocente de quatro e que os outros dois não podem ser provados conclusivamente: as mortes de Henrique VI e Jorge duque de Clarence foram responsabilidade de Eduardo IV nenhuma fonte contemporânea liga Ricardo com a morte de Eduardo de Lancaster em Tewkesbury Anne Neville morreu de causas naturais evidências insuficientes sobrevivem para ter certeza se Eduardo V era legítimo (e, portanto, o rei legal) ou para saber o que aconteceu com Eduardo V e seu irmão depois A ascensão de Richard. Mesmo o "corcunda" do mito popular agora foi desmascarado pela descoberta dos restos mortais do rei: sua escoliose teria sido quase imperceptível, exceto, talvez, quando seu corpo nu foi jogado para a frente sobre um cavalo após sua morte. Também é importante notar que agora é dado mais reconhecimento às realizações de Ricardo como duque e rei.

Não é o propósito da Sociedade ‘branquear’ a reputação de Richard, é conseguir uma avaliação justa e equilibrada de sua vida e caráter. Seus membros têm uma ampla variedade de pontos de vista sobre como as evidências contemporâneas podem ser julgadas com mais precisão e pretendemos refletir isso no balanço dos artigos neste site. Diversos artigos são compostos por membros do Comitê de Pesquisa e são atualizados periodicamente. Outros foram escritos por indivíduos nomeados, geralmente reconhecidos especialistas no campo relevante, alguns dos quais se identificariam como ricardianos e outros não.

As opiniões e conclusões expressas são dos autores dos artigos individuais e não refletem necessariamente as da Sociedade como um todo. Isso significa que alguns artigos irão, em alguns pontos, interpretar as evidências de maneira diferente de outros. Os leitores devem decidir por si mesmos o que consideram mais plausível. Esperamos que você se sinta inspirado por isso para olhar mais além e descobrir mais.

Introdução

A Guerra das Rosas é o nome popular dado ao conflito civil que dominou o final do século XV e que representava as reivindicações dos descendentes rivais de Eduardo III - os Lancastrianos e os Yorkistas. Este é um descritor comparativamente recente. Embora a Casa de York ocasionalmente usasse a rosa branca como um emblema, argumentou-se que a Casa de Lancaster não o fez. O que é incontestável é que o eventual herdeiro Lancastriano, Henrique VII, combinou as rosas no emblema da rosa Tudor por ter se casado com a herdeira Yorkista, Elizabeth.
Escolhendo as rosas vermelhas e brancas
por Henry A Payne (1868-1940)
Cortesia de Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery O termo, Wars of the Roses, parece ter se originado com o historiador David Hume em 1761 e foi adotado no século XIX por Sir Walter Scott. Os emblemas da rosa se adequavam ao clima de uma era romântica vitoriana, que os adotou com entusiasmo na história, na arte e na literatura.

o Guerras foram, na verdade, uma luta civil esporádica que ocorreu entre 1455 e 1485. As batalhas, no entanto, não foram as únicas manifestações da agitação, já que os levantes, a resistência e as rebeliões foram tão característicos da época quanto as batalhas armadas paralelas. A política externa também se intrometeu e, inevitavelmente, as tensões com os países vizinhos levaram a Inglaterra a outros conflitos militares com a Borgonha, a França e a Escócia.

o Batalha de Bosworth, no entanto, não concluiu as guerras e durante todo o seu reinado Henrique VII enfrentou desafios à sua realeza. Não foi até que seu filho ascendeu ao trono como Henrique VIII, o herdeiro de York e Lancaster, que a jovem dinastia Tudor encontrou alguma segurança.

Todo esse conflito e contenda estava tão entrelaçado com a história política do período que é inseparável do estudo da vida e da época do rei Ricardo III. Para contextualizar a vida do rei Ricardo e as consequências de seu reinado, esta seção do site examina todos esses aspectos preocupantes do final do século XV.

A história política das guerras

Esta breve história foi escrita especialmente para o site pelo conhecido historiador e autor Keith Dockray. Muito da discussão deriva de seu livro William Shakespeare, a Guerra das Rosas e os Historiadores (2002), e seus três livros de referência, Henrique VI, Margarida de Anjou e a Guerra das Rosas (2000), Edward IV (1999) e Ricardo III (1997).


A marcha de Leicester
por Graham Turner
Cortesia de Osprey Publishing Ltd A Guerra das Rosas, segundo a tradição histórica inglesa, foi uma série de conflitos militares sangrentos que dominaram várias décadas durante a segunda metade do século XV. Casas reais de Lancaster e York, rivais dinásticos pela posse da antiga coroa da Inglaterra, lutaram entre si em batalha após batalha a elite governante do país, especialmente sua poderosa aristocracia latifundiária, dividida em apoio a um ou outro e as vidas das pessoas comuns foram virada de cabeça para baixo por conflitos civis endêmicos e suas terríveis consequências políticas, econômicas e sociais.

Não é de se admirar que William Shakespeare, ao escrever suas peças de história de Plantageneta para o palco de Londres na década de 1590, aproveitou avidamente o potencial dramático de uma história tão clara e convincente. Mas isso é verdade? Certamente, os reis travaram uma série de batalhas entre 1455 e 1487 e a própria coroa mudou de mãos várias vezes. Uma alta porcentagem da nobreza, e muitos nobres, envolveram-se em um momento ou outro, milhares de camponeses e cidadãos constituíram a base dos exércitos e centenas de vidas foram indubitavelmente perdidas. No entanto, é muito fácil exagerar a escala e o impacto dessas guerras, especialmente se forem feitas comparações com a Primeira e a Segunda Guerra Mundial no século XX.
William Shakespeare
gravura de Martin Broshuut, primeiro fólio de 1623
Cortesia Geoffrey Wheeler Fases de conflito mais ou menos prolongado, como aquele entre 1459 e 1461, eram mais a exceção do que a regra. A elite governante da Inglaterra, particularmente famílias com sangue real correndo em suas veias, suportou o fardo de tudo, mas mesmo eles frequentemente demonstravam considerável relutância em pegar em armas. Muitos nobres foram mortos na luta ou enfrentaram a execução por terem apoiado o lado errado, mas poucas, se alguma, famílias proeminentes foram extintas como resultado direto de conflitos civis. A maioria das pessoas provavelmente nunca se envolveu nas guerras, pois a destruição material foi intermitente e a agricultura e o comércio localizados foram minimamente interrompidos e a vida religiosa e cultural do país continuou a florescer por toda parte.

Por que, em uma época em que a vitória espetacular de Henrique V sobre os franceses em Agincourt em 1415 e a subsequente conquista da maior parte do norte da França ainda estavam vivos na memória, a Inglaterra se dissolveu em uma guerra civil? A principal culpa deve recair sobre os ombros de seu filho, o terceiro rei lancastriano, Henrique VI (1422-1461), certamente o mais inepto e incompetente de todos os governantes do reino inglês desde a Conquista normanda de 1066. Talvez, dado seu aspecto pessoal piedade e profundas convicções religiosas, ele poderia ter sido um monge decente o suficiente, mas não tinha nenhuma das qualidades necessárias para uma realeza bem-sucedida no século XV: ele tinha poucas habilidades políticas ou de gestão humana, não tinha proezas militares ou capacidade para comandar e, after he suffered a complete mental collapse in 1453, he probably became little more than a political cipher, all too easily manipulated by those around him. He certainly could not hold a candle to Richard, Duke of York, no political genius himself, but who did have a strong claim to the throne and spearheaded opposition to the Lancastrian regime in the 1450s. Various factors help explain the onset of the Wars of the Roses: Lancastrian/ Yorkist dynastic rivalry and ideological controversy the loss of virtually all Henry V's empire in France by the autumn of 1453 economic recession in general and the chronic condition of the royal finances in particular private aristocratic feuds and escalating lawlessness and growing resentment at the power, wealth and influence of the clique surrounding the king. Even so, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that, if Henry VI had not been the man he was and if his government had not developed along the lines it did, the Wars of the Roses might never have happened.

As early as February 1450 Henry VI's chief minister, William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, was impeached for treason and subsequently murdered Jack Cade's rebellion, the most serious popular uprising since the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, engulfed south-eastern England in May and June and, in the autumn, Richard of York openly challenged the Lancastrian regime. Early in 1452, having failed to rock the government by constitutional means, Richard of York resorted to armed force. That failed too, but when the king suffered a sudden bout of severe mental illness in the summer of 1453, York and his new northern aristocratic allies the Nevilles (Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury and his son Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick) eventually emerged triumphant and the duke became protector of the realm in March 1454. It was a short-lived victory. Henry Vl recovered at least most of his senses at the end of the year York's protectorate was terminated soon after and, now excluded from the magic circle of high politics once more and feeling seriously threatened, York and the Nevilles proceeded to arm and, on 22 May 1455, successfully confronted their rivals at the first battle of St Albans. Although little more than a skirmish in the streets of an English market town between rival lords and their retinues, however, this fight is conventionally regarded as the beginning of the Wars of the Roses.


The First Battle of St Albans
by Graham Turner
Courtesy www.studio88.comAs a result of St Albans the balance of political advantage changed again Henry VI fell into Yorkist hands and, when the king suffered another mental breakdown in November 1455, Richard of York again became protector for a few months. Again too, however, Henry's recovery put an end to that, not least as a result of the determination of his formidable queen, Margaret of Anjou. By the autumn of 1456, in fact, not only were York and his allies once more out of office but they had been largely replaced by men close to the queen. Thereafter, Margaret threw herself into factional politics with ever-mounting vigour by 1459 she was ready for a further showdown and, in the autumn of that year, civil strife erupted with a vengeance. Indeed, in all probability, only Henry VI's own well-meaning if ultimately futile efforts to promote peace and reconciliation (for instance, the so-called Loveday of March 1458) and the reluctance of the majority of the nobility to take up arms against their anointed king had prevented an earlier renewal of conflict.

When, on 23 September 1459, royal troops intercepted Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, in Staffordshire en route to join his son Warwick and Richard of York at Ludlow in Shropshire, the result was an indecisive engagement fought at Blore Heath near Newcastle-under-Lyme. Salisbury made it to Ludlow but on the night of 12/13 October, when faced by the prospect of fighting a much larger Lancastrian force, the Yorkist lords simply fled: Richard of York took ship for Ireland, while Salisbury, Warwick and York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March (the future Edward lV) escaped to Calais. Soon afterwards the Coventry parliament (or the Parliament of Devils as it was dubbed in Yorkist propaganda) condemned them as traitors and declared their estates confiscated. Only force could now restore their position and so, in June 1460, the Nevilles and Edward, Earl of March, sailed for south-eastern England and secured control of London. On 10 July, battle was joined once more outside Northampton. In another reversal of fortunes victory went to the Yorkist lords, Henry VI fell into their hands (again!) and when, in the autumn, Richard of York at last returned from Ireland, he dramatically claimed the throne for himself. This seems to have taken virtually everyone by surprise. After a prolonged and probably heated debate in parliament, however, a compromise was cobbled together whereby Henry VI would retain the crown during his lifetime but, after his death, his son Edward of Lancaster would be disinherited in favour of the house of York.


LudlowStalwart Lancastrians in general, and Queen Margaret of Anjou in particular, rejected the so-called Act of Accord out of hand and raised a new army. On 30 December 1460 at Wakefield the wheel of fortune turned yet again. Richard of York was killed in the field Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury was executed the following day and, in January 1461, the queen and her largely northern army marched south. On 17 February it defeated a force commanded by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, at the second battle of St Albans and Henry Vl was reunited with his wife once more. London, however, baulked at the prospect of hosting so notoriously undisciplined an army. Perhaps foolishly, the queen made no attempt to take the city by force but, instead, retreated back to the north. Meanwhile, Richard of York's eldest son Edward, Earl of March won the battle of Mortimer's Cross in Shropshire on 2 February, joined Warwick and, together, the two earls entered the capital amidst considerable enthusiasm. A few days later, on 4 March 1461, the eighteen-year-old Edward was proclaimed king.


The Arrival
By Graham Turner
Reproduced by kind permission of the artist
www.studio88.co.uk Edward IV (1461-1483) could hardly have been a more striking contrast to his hapless predecessor: personally, he was tall, handsome, intelligent, vigorous, convivial and worldly-wise politically, he was more cut out in every way for the tricky task of ruling England and militarily he was no slouch either. At Towton near York on 29 March 1461, indeed, he fought and won the biggest and bloodiest battle of the entire Guerra das Rosas. Even after this great victory and the flight of Henry Vl, Margaret of Anjou and their son, Edward of Lancaster, to Scotland, however, the new king's position on the throne remained far from secure. Lancastrian resistance to Yorkist rule continued, particularly in Wales and the north of England. Only when the Yorkists won a further major victory at Hexham in Northumberland in May 1464, and Henry VI fell into their hands in Lancashire in July 1465, did this phase of the Wars of the Roses come to an end.

During Edward IV's early years Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick was his most powerful supporter: indeed, Warwick's rôle in enabling the new king to seize the throne in the first place later earned him the soubriquet 'Kingmaker'. The earl's mounting discontent in the later 1460s, however, eventually brought a renewal of civil war at the end of the decade. Perhaps the origins of the rift can be found in Edward IV's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville in 1464, the rise of the Woodville clan at court and, most particularly, Warwick's preference for an alliance with Louis XI of France rather than Burgundy (scotched by the marriage of the king's sister Margaret to Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1468). Against Edward's wishes his brother George, Duke of Clarence, married Warwick's daughter Isabel and, on 26 July 1469, a Neville-sponsored northern rebellion culminated in a victory for the king's opponents at the battle of Edgecote and Edward's capture and imprisonment soon afterwards. A few weeks later he was released, or escaped, and resumed his rule moreover, the failure of another probably Neville-inspired rebellion in Lincolnshire in March 1470 (resulting in the flight of both Warwick and Clarence to France) seemed to mark the end of all the earl's hopes. Yet, improbably, the wily Louis XI managed to engineer a reconciliation between Warwick and the exiled Lancastrian queen Margaret of Anjou in July a marriage was contracted between Edward of Lancaster and the earl's daughter Anne and, in September, Warwick crossed to England, forced Edward IV to flee to Burgundy and, in October, restored Henry Vl to the throne: whatever his role in 1461, the earl was certainly a kingmaker in 1470.


Richard at the Battle of Barnet
Challenge in the Mist, by Graham Turner
Reproduced by kind permission of the artist
www.studio88.co.ukClearly, Henry Vl was even less capable of governing now than he had been a decade earlier and the government established in his name was very much dominated by Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick. Over the next six months he struggled to reconcile as many Yorkist supporters as he could, as well as trying to ensure continued Lancastrian backing for his fragile regime but, in practice, he found it almost impossible to satisfy one faction without alienating another. The failure of Margaret of Anjou and Edward of Lancaster to leave France hardly helped. Instead, it was Edward IV who landed in northern England in March 1471 he attracted increasing support as he marched south, including that of a now disgruntled George, Duke of Clarence, received an enthusiastic reception in London (as he had in 1461) and, on 14 April, the extraordinary battle of Barnet was fought in a thick mist. Here Edward won a famous victory and, most importantly, Warwick himself was killed in the field. Ironically, on the very same day as Barnet was fought, Margaret of Anjou set foot on English soil for the first time since 1463 the Lancastrians were forced into battle at Tewkesbury on 4 May and, once more, Edward IV triumphed. Edward of Lancaster lost his life, his mother was captured and, soon afterwards, Henry Vl was murdered in the Tower of London. Insofar as the fifteenth-century civil wars were dynastic struggles fought between the houses of Lancaster and York, they really ended in 1471.

The final phases of the Wars of the Roses resulted from divisions within the York family itself, coupled with the emergence of Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, as a new contender for the crown. When Edward IV died suddenly and prematurely on 9 April 1483 his eldest son was only a boy the Yorkist court was split and the Woodvilles, in particular, were unpopular and, as a result, the dead king's only surviving brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester, became protector of the realm on 10 May. Within a few weeks, on 26 June 1483, he seized the throne for himself as Richard III. Since 1471, when he fought for Edward IV at both Barnet and Tewkesbury, he had served his brother loyally in the north of England and northerners formed the solid core of his support in 1483. Many in southern England were disgruntled, however, and, as rumours spread that Richard III's nephews (Edward V and Richard, Duke of York) had been murdered in the Tower, a major rebellion broke out in the south and west. The new king responded vigorously and the rising collapsed ignominiously. Yet by then, ominously, Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, had emerged as a potentially serious rival, particularly once his marriage to Edward IV's daughter Elizabeth of York was mooted.


The landing of Henry VII at Milford Haven
By Graham Turner
Reproduced by kind permission of Osprey Publishing LtdAlthough Richard III made considerable efforts to widen the basis of his support in the political nation in 1484/5 he met with only limited success and, when Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, mounted an invasion in the summer of 1485, Richard's reliance on his own affinity (especially northerners) remained paramount. Certainly, when Richard III at last faced at Bosworth his rival on the battlefield early on the morning of 22 August, he was largely backed by the same men who had helped bring him to power two years earlier. Many of his supporters probably fought for him with vigour, and his own courage is beyond question, but the king's death in the midst of the action made the fall of the Yorkist dynasty inevitable. Even after the victory was won, however, the virtually unknown Henry VII was by no means secure on the throne luck rather than good judgement had probably been paramount in his victory at Bosworth and he had neither the background nor training for kingship. No wonder he became so obsessed with establishing the new Tudor dynasty on the throne, even after he had married Elizabeth of York, and countering threats (both real and imaginary) to his security. Only after a major rebellion had been put down in 1487 did his possession of the crown become increasingly unassailable. For that reason, the battle of Stoke, fought on 16 June 1487, rather than Bosworth, can be regarded as the end of the wars of the Roses.

A Brief Chronology of Events

&bull Insurrection broke out in this year in various parts of England, directed against the duke of Suffolk and his supporters, governing the country under Henry VI. The duke was impeached by the Commons on January 28, and committed to the Tower. He was later banished and murdered on his way to France. John Cade (calling himself Mortimer), raised an insurrection in Kent, in May, perhaps on behalf of the duke of York. Cade encamped on Blackheath, and plundered London but was later defeated and executed.
&bull The duke of Somerset, Governor of Normandy, was recalled to England and took direction of affairs on behalf of Henry VI.

&bull The duke of York took up arms, and demanded that Somerset should be brought to trial for his misdeeds. York was persuaded to lay down his arms, and was imprisoned. Shortly afterwards he was released and retired to his castle of Wigmore (in Herefordshire).
&bull Richard of Gloucester, youngest son of the duke of York, born at Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire on 2 October.

&bull The king fell mentally ill and was totally incapacitated for government in November. The duke of York came forward again and was admitted into the king's council. He obtained the imprisonment of Somerset in December.

&bull Parliament met on 14 February. The king's incapacity was agreed and the duke of York was appointed on 3 April protector and defender of the kingdom during the minority of King Henry's heir Prince Edward, born on 15 March.
&bull Somerset was deprived of his offices and accused of treason, but the charge was not pursued.

&bull The king recovered his health and revoked the duke of York's commission as Protector. Somerset was released from the Tower on 5 February. The dukes of York and Somerset entered into bonds of 20,000 marks each (1 mark = 13s 4d = 67p = roughly one euro) to submit their disputes to arbitration on 4 March. Two days later, on the advice of the duke of Somerset, the duke of York was deprived of the Captaincy of Calais and took up arms. The armies met at the first battle of St Albans on 22 May, Somerset was killed and the duke of York gained a complete victory.
&bull The captaincy of Calais was now given to the earl of Warwick, nephew of the duke of York. The king fell ill for a second time, and the duke of York was again made Protector, on 19 November, to remain in office until dismissed by Parliament.

&bull The king recovered and revoked the duke's commission as Protector on 25 February. The duke and his chief supporters retired to their estates.

&bull The queen and the duke of York were formally reconciled on 25 March.
&bull An attempt was made to assassinate the earl of Warwick in London on 9 September. He escaped to the north and arranged with his father, the earl of Salisbury, and the duke of York for their mutual defence. He then retired to Calais.

&bull The earl of Salisbury marched to join the duke of York. On his way he defeated and killed Lord Audley, a Lancastrian, at Blore Heath in Staffordshire on 23 September. The earl of Warwick now also joined the duke of York at Ludlow and the Lancastrians, commanded by the queen, advanced against them. When the armies met on 13 October at Ludford Bridge the queen offered a pardon, and the duke's army deserted him.
&bull The family of the duke of York, his wife Cecily, his two youngest sons George and Richard and his daughter Margaret were all taken prisoner and sent to the safe keeping of Anne, Duchess of Buckingham, Cecily's sister.
&bull The duke of Somerset made an attempt to take Calais from the Yorkists but failed. The earls of Warwick and Salisbury fled there and the duke of York went to Ireland.
&bull A parliament was held at Coventry on 20 November in which the duke of York and his chief supporters were attainted.

&bull The Yorkist lords at Calais, invited by the people of Kent, landed at Sandwich, about mid-summer. They entered London with a large army on 2 July. The queen raised a force, which was totally defeated by the Yorkists at Northampton on 10 July. The duke of Buckingham, the queen's general, was killed and the king taken prisoner. The queen and her son fled to Scotland.
&bull The duke of York returned from Ireland on 9 October, and made a formal claim to the crown on 16 October. A compromise was reached on 31 October, that Henry should retain the crown for life, and be succeeded by the duke of York. The proceedings of the parliament at Coventry in 1459 were set aside as illegal.
&bull The Queen raised an army in the north and advanced against the Yorkists. On 2 December the Duke of York left London to oppose her. He was besieged by her forces in Sandal Castle near Wakefield, sallied out and attacked them on 30 December, but was defeated and killed. His son Edmund, Earl of Rutland, was killed and the earl of Salisbury who was also with him was executed afterwards.
&bull By the autumn of this year York's family (including Richard) were in the house of Sir John Fastolf in Southwark, London.

&bull Duke Richard's eldest son Edward, now duke of York (and afterwards Edward IV) defeated Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke, at the battle of Mortimer's Cross, near Wigmore, on 2 February. The earl's father, Owen Tudor, and several other prisoners were beheaded on the field of battle. The queen advanced southward, defeated the earl of Warwick at the second battle of St Albans on 17 February, and rescued the king. London closed its gates against her and she was obliged to retire to the north.
&bull Edward, Duke of York, entered London on 28 February. He urged his claim before a council of peers, prelates and chief citizens, who declared him king on 3 March. He was solemnly installed at Westminster as king on 4 March, immediately marched into the north, and defeated the Lancastrians with great slaughter at the battle of Towton, near Tadcaster on 29 March. Henry, with his queen and son Edward and some of their supporters, escaped to Scotland. Edward IV returned to London, and was crowned on 28 June.
&bull The new king created his brothers, George and Richard, dukes of Clarence and Gloucester respectively. Richard possibly placed in the household of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, the king's cousin.

&bull The duke of Somerset, Henry Beaufort, and many other Lancastrians abandoned Henry and made terms with King Edward.
&bull Queen Margaret landed in Northumberland with French troops, and retired to Scotland after no English joined her.

&bull Queen Margaret marched into England and captured several northern castles. She was again joined by Somerset and other supporters. John, Marquess of Montague, brother of the earl of Warwick, defeated the Lancastrians at a battle on Hedgley Moor, near Wooller, Northumberland, on 25 April, and again at Hexham, also in Northumberland, on 15 May. Henry found refuge in Lancashire the queen and the prince retired to Flanders. The Duke of Somerset and many other prisoners were executed.
&bull On 29 September Edward IV revealed his marriage to Elizabeth, the widow of Sir John Grey, a Lancastrian. Edward immediately showed favour to her relatives, the Woodvilles, and thus aroused the jealousy of his brothers and his supporter, the earl of Warwick.

&bull Henry VI was captured in Lancashire in July, conducted to London and imprisoned in the Tower.

&bull Edward IV took the seals of office from the Chancellor, George Neville, Archbishop of York, on 9 June, a first blow against the power and influence of the Nevilles.

&bull The king went on pilgrimage into Norfolk in June, accompanied by his brother Richard. Insurrections against the Woodvilles were raised by the earl of Warwick and Edward's brother Clarence. On 11 July Clarence married Isabel Neville, daughter of the earl of Warwick against the wishes of his brother. On 26 July the king's troops were defeated at Edgecote, near Banbury. The queen's father, Richard, Earl Rivers, and her brother John Woodville, together with other supporters of the king were captured and executed. The king was arrested by Warwick and imprisoned in Middleham Castle but he was free again by late September. Warwick and the king apparently reconciled.

&bull The Lancastrians rose in Lincolnshire under Sir Robert Welles, but were quickly suppressed in March. The earl of Warwick and the duke of Clarence were denounced as traitors by the King on 31 March, and fled to Calais. They were refused admission and retired to France, where they were received by Louis XI. Warwick was reconciled to Queen Margaret and agreed to assist in the restoration of King Henry. Warwick's daughter Anne was married to the young prince Edward, son of Henry VI and Margaret, in August.
&bull Warwick and Clarence landed at Dartmouth on 13 September. Edward gathered an army against them, but was deserted by Lord Montague and fled to Kings Lynn with his brother Gloucester, there embarking for Flanders on 3 October. Warwick entered London on 5 October and released King Henry from the Tower.

&bull A parliament was held at Westminster which repealed the attainder of the Lancastrians, attainted the Yorkists and settled the crown again on King Henry and his son Edward.
&bull Edward IV and Gloucester sailed from Zealand with a small force supplied by the duke of Burgundy on 11 March, and landed at Ravenspur at the mouth of the Humber on 14 March. Clarence joined him at Coventry on 30 March, and they advanced on London. Henry was again sent to the Tower, on 11 April. Warwick advanced on Edwar from Coventry, but was defeated and killed at Barnet on Easter Sunday, 14 April.
&bull Queen Margaret landed at Weymouth on 14 April, where she was joined by the duke of Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, and others who had escaped from Barnet, and set out to join the Tudors in Wales. Edward marched against them and defeated them at Tewkesbury on 4 May. He took Margaret prisoner and put to death the duke of Somerset and many others. Prince Edward was killed in the battle. King Henry was found dead in the Tower shortly afterwards.

&bull Edward IV tried to persuade the duke of Brittany to surrender to him Henry and Jasper Tudor (the earls of Richmond and Pembroke).

&bull George, Duke of Clarence, tried for treason before Parliament and found guilty on 7 February. He was executed in the Tower on 18 February.

&bull Death of Edward IV and the reign of Richard III began.
&bull In October Richard learned of the rebellion led by the duke of Buckingham. By 1 November King Richard was in Salisbury and the uprising had collapsed and the following day the duke was executed. On 12 November Henry Tudor attempted a landing at Plymouth (or possibly at Poole in October) but was driven off.

&bull Parliament held 23 January to 20 February. Henry Tudor was attainted.

&bull 7 August, Henry Tudor landed in Wales with an invasion army. On 22 August the battle of Bosworth was joined and King Richard was killed. Henry Tudor victorious and proclaimed King Henry VII.
&bull In October first insurrections against King Henry led by Robin of Riddesdale, Jack St Thomalyn and Master Mendall.

&bull Insurrection in the spring led by Francis Lovell who tried to capture King Henry at York.

&bull The earl of Lincoln, nephew and presumed heir of Richard III, supported an uprising by Lambert Simnel, who called himself Edward, Earl of Warwick (son of George, Duke of Clarence). Lincoln landed in Ireland with any army on 5 May, and Simnel was crowned in the cathedral at Dublin as Edward VI on 14 May.
&bull Simnel and his forces landed in Lancashire on 4 June, and marched to Stoke, near Newark. Henry advanced against them and defeated them on 16 June in the last battle of the Wars of the Roses. The earl of Lincoln and most of the leaders were killed and Simnel was taken prisoner.
&bull Elizabeth of York is crowned Queen on 25 November.

&bull Rebellion in Yorkshire and the earl of Northumberland was murdered on 28 April.

&bull In November the pretender Perkin Warbeck arrives in Dublin.

&bull Warbeck visits France and Burgundy.

&bull Warbeck visits Emperor Maximilian in Vienna.

&bull On 16 February Sir William Stanley is executed in connection with the activities of Perkin Warbeck.
&bull 23 July to 3 August Warbeck's expedition to Kent.
&bull He then sails to Ireland and in November arrives in Scotland.

&bull James IV and Warbeck invade England.

&bull In May the Cornishmen rebel against Henry VII and are defeated at Blackheath on 17 June.
&bull In July Warbeck leaves Scotland with his wife and family and lands in Cornwall on 7 September.
&bull On 5 October Warbeck surrenders to Henry VII.

&bull Warbeck attempts to escape from London and is arrested at Sheen on 9 June.


Battle of Northampton

The Battle of Northampton took place on 10th July 1460. It was a Yorkist victory that reversed the fortunes of their cause in the Wars of the Roses. After spending time in exile, the Yorkists returned to England. At Northampton they defeated the Lancastrian army, captured King Henry VI and killed several leading Lancastrians. The battle led to Richard, Duke of York, being named heir.

Following Ludford Bridge the main Yorkist leaders had been forced into exile. Richard, Duke of York, had gone to Ireland. Earls Salisbury and Warwick, to Calais. The Lancastrian faction attempted to kill off any hopes of a Yorkist resurgence. Attempts were made to capture Calais. These were rebuffed by a strong force that remained loyal to Warwick. In January 1460 a raiding party of Yorkist troops attacked Sandwich. Here they captured the Lancastrian fleet and Earl Rivers.

Having captured the Lancastrian fleet, the Yorkists had control of the English Channel. Warwick sailed, unopposed, to meet with Richard Duke of York, in Ireland. Here they planned their next move.

In June 1460 the Yorkists once again landed at Sandwich. This was no raiding party. A force of around 1200 men landed, took the town and held it. After shoring up the towns defenses, Warwick, Fauconberg and Salisbury landed, on 26th June.

After securing a base in Sandwich the Yorkists moved north. An initial force numbering fewer than 2000 men soon grew. Lancastrian commanders in Canterbury changed allegiances. Supporters of the Yorkist faction joined as the army moved to London. Upon arriving at the capital, the force is said to have numbered at least 20000. The Lancastrian Commander withdrew his forces into the Tower of London. The Yorkists entered London on 2nd July. They did not did not stay long. On 4th July, the bulk of the army marched North. Earl Salisbury remained in London and besieged the Tower of London.

The Lancastrians knew that the Yorkist army was on the march. They moved from Coventry to Northampton. Here, they built a fortified camp which was surrounded by a small moat. The camp was defended by cannon and had the River Nene to its rear.

The Yorkists maintained that they had no argument with the King himself. It was the counsellors with whom they claimed to have issue. Attempts at Parley were made by the Yorkists. They were refused by the Duke of Buckingham who would not allow the heralds access to the King. After several attempts, Warwick informed the Lancastrians that they would be attacked at 2pm if no agreement had been made.

The Yorkist army assaulted the Lancastrian position. As it advanced, the Lancastrians did not fire their cannon. The reasons are unknown but it is possible that the gunpowder had become damp. As they reached the barricade one of the defenders, Lord Grey, switched sides. His men joined the Yorkists and this gave the attacking force a large breech in the defenses into which they could advance. With a river behind them and surrounded by their own defensive moat, the Lancastrians could not form up effectively.

Many men fled the battlefield: the River Nene is not all that deep. Around the Kings quarters, a number of leading Lancastrian lords were slain. Their number included the Duke of Buckingham, Thomas Percy, the Earl of Shrewsbury and Lord Beaumont. The King was left stranded in his tent. Once again, he was captured by Yorkist troops.

The Battle was quite short. Relatively few are believed to have died. The consequences were great. Once again the king was in captivity. The Yorkists had killed many of their leading opponents. King Henry VI was still reigning though and his queen was at large. Richard Duke of York returned to England shortly after the Battle of Northampton. A compromise was made with a view to settling the conflict. Henry would be allowed to continue his rule. However, Richard was now named as heir, with inheritance to pass through him to his sons. Prince Edward was excluded from inheriting the throne. Infographic: What happened in the Wars of the Roses?


Sir William Harrington's Companye

The 10th July 1460 saw a major battle of the Wars of the Roses at Northampton. This year, the event is being commemorated at the Delapre Abbey site, with an event featuring the Companye. As part of the run up to this event, our tame historian Mike has created a daily update of the events leading up to the battle. Check back here daily for updates!

26 June 1460.

The Calais Lords, Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick Edward, Earl of March and William Neville, Lord Fauconberg landed at Sandwich with 2,000 men.

27 June 1460.

The Calais lords arrive at Canterbury. Robert Horne, John Scot and John Fosse and their men, sent by King Henry to stop them change sides and help negotiate the surrender of the city.

28 June 1460

Yorkists send out letters summoning help from the Cinque Ports. At least Rye and Winchelsea send men. After paying respects at the shrine of St. Thomas, a growing number of Yorkists leave Canterbury heading for London via Rochester and Dartford.

29 June 1460

The Common Council of London agree to resist the rebels but refuse to let the Lancastrian Lord Scales to act as the cities Captain. Men at Arms are placed on London Bridge. A deputation is sent to the advancing Yorkists warning them they would be refused entry to the city. Thousands flock to the Yorkist standard ‘like bees to the hive’.

1st July 1460

The Yorkist army reaches London and camps at Blackheath. As well as the Calais Lords it was said to include ” the many footmen of the commons of Kent, Sussex and Surrey”. By this time, according to some observers their number was between 20,000 and 40,000.

2 July 1460

11 Aldermen of London rebel in support of the Yorkists. The Yorkists enter London and are met by the Bishops of Ely and Exeter in Southwark. There is a crush on London Bridge and 13 Men at Arms are trampled when they fell.

3 July 1460

The Calais Lords make an oath of allegance to King Henry on the cross of Canterbury at St. Pauls. Warwick announces that they had come with the people to declare their innocence or else die in the field.

4 July 1460

Francesco Coppini, Bishop of Turin and Papal Legate joined the Yorkists at Calais. His official mission from the Pope was to persuade the English to join a crusade. However, he has a secret mission from Francesco Sforza, Duke of Milan (If you have seen “The Borgias” on TV you will get the idea), to help put the Yorkists on the throne. The French were becoming heavily involved in Italy and Margaret of Anjou’s brother wanted to be King of Naples, thereby threatening Milan. If the Yorkists were kings of England they might be persuaded to invade France and take the pressure of of Italy. At St. Pauls and by letter, Coppini issues a chilling warning to King Henry… ‘….out of the pity and compassion you should have for your people and citizens and your duty, to prevent so much bloodshed, now so imminent. You can prevent this if you will, and if you do not you will be guilty in the sight of God in that awful day of judgement in which I also shall stand and require of your hand the English blood, if it be spilt’

4 July 1460 Part 2.

Warwick’s Uncle, William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, advances north from London, with according to one chronicler, 10,000 men. Faucoberg was the Yorkist’s most experienced soldier having taken part in many of the later battles of the 100 Year War. He appears to have been heading for Ware. Warwick secures a loan of £1,000 from London to finance the coming campaign.

5 July 1460

The main Yorkist army commanded by Warwick leaves London heading north along Watling Street. They bring with them a train of artillery.

The Lancastrian’s make plans to leave their base at Coventry. Summonses are sent out to towns and to lords to assemble their forces. They too have a large train of artillery which they had been stockpiling at Kenilworth Castle.

Salisbury and Cobham stay in London to lay siege to the Tower

July 7 1460

The Lancastrians reach Northampton and begin to build a fortified camp in fields between Hardingstone and Delapre Abbey. Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor of England , William Waynflete, surrenders the Great Seal to the King in ‘Hardingstone Field’ Then he and a number of other senior members resign and flee. According to one source part of the town is set on fire by Lancastrian cavalry as it arrives.

In the meantime the two separate Yorkist armies join at Dunstable where they wait for the artillery and slower foot soldiers to catch up.

9 July 1460

The Yorkist army approaches Northampton through Blisworth and camps for the night at the iron age hill fort of Hunsbury Hill.

The Lancastrian camp begins to swell with men as towns answer the King’s summons. Twenty men from Beverley arrive after their mayor threw a party for them before they left. Men from Shrewsbury are also there too. Northampton’s leading gentry and their men such as the Wake’s, Catesby’s, Vaux’s and Tresham’s all come in support of the King. The Duke of Buckingham, as earl of Northampton draws men from his local estates, as does the Queen who owns Kingsthorpe Village. The town itself calls out the militia which fights under the town’s ‘Wild Rat’ banner.

10 July 1460

King Henry knights ten of his men including Thomas Stanley and the five year old grandson of the Duke of Buckingham.Both would be heavily involved in the demise of Richard III, twenty four and twenty five years later

The Yorkists send Heralds and Bishops to the Lancastrian camp to negotiate, still maintaining they do not want to fight, only talk with the King. A Yorkist Bishop changes sides and urges the King not to negotiate but fight.Buckingham declares “The Earl of Warwick shall not come to the King’s presence and if he comes he shall die.”

Warwick finally replies “At 2 o’clock I will speak with the King or I will die”. It would be the last time that any negotiations would precede an English battle. Coppini, the Papal Legate excommunicates the Lancastrians and forbids them to have a christian burial. Warwick orders either spare the commoners or spare Grey’s men (depending on the source).

As Warwick approaches with his men a cavalry battle takes place with 1300-1400 Lancastrian’s which according to Waurin lasts over an hour. They are pushed back to the now lost St. Leonard’s Bridge and cut down. The Yorkist’s capture the bridge and the Lancastrian cavalry commander is captured and executed.

The Yorkists advance on the Lancastrian position, it would be the only time a fortified camp was assaulted during all thirty-seven years of the wars. Several accounts say that the Lancastrian guns fail to fire. Although the guns might not have worked, they were not defenseless and shower the Yorkists with up to 100,000 arrows. Despite this William Lucy in Dallington hears gunfire and races to join the King (was this then Yorkist gunfire?)

When Edward Earl of March (later King Edward IV) and his men reach the defences, Lord Grey of Ruthin commanding the Lancastrian left flank and his men start helping the Yorkists into the camp.

Its all over for the Lancastrian’s. A fight takes place around the King’s tent in which Buckingham, Egremont, Beaumont and Shrewsbury are all killed. So too is Vaux from Northampton. The King is captured by the Yorkists.

Many Lancastrians try to flee. With the bridge under Yorkist control and the river under flood plus a myriad of smaller waterways that flow east and west between the Abbey and the town, they can only go east and lots of miniature battles take place across the landscape. Many are recorded as dying as they try to cross the river (probably Rushmills).

William Lucy arrives on the battlefield only to be met by his wife’s Yorkist lover, who kills him with an axe. The two marry shortly after.

Aftermath.

Between 5-7,000 killed. All the Lancastrian lords are killed. King Henry is captured. He stays at Northampton for three days and takes mass at Delapre. He is then led back to London in procession. Soon after Richard of York returns and for the first time lays claim to the throne. Margaret of Anjou escapes with the Royal baggage but is overtaken at Gayton. The rogue bishop is arrested and thrown into the dungeon at Warwick Castle.


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